The tower extended no further upwards than the ledge that can be seen on the outside under the gothic windows. The westwork would originally have been much lower and compacter than now. The church was completed and consecrated in Prior to , the crypt was extended westwards, the stem of the cloverleaf, as it were, being made longer. The choir above it was consequently raised along the same length. This raised section, in the crossing, likewise cut the transepts in two. In the sixteenth century, in line with the fashions of the time, the Romanesque trimmings were removed from the crypt and the choir and replaced with Gothic designs.
The two side recesses of the crypt and choir were demolished and the circular windows replaced with perpendicular ones. In the mid-eighteenth century, the crypt was plastered in rococo style. The choir stalls were installed on the crossing in the choir in the seventeenth century.
Their carvings are simple but powerful in design. A tower was constructed on the westwork in and in , its stone steeple was replaced by one made in timber with slates. In , the young architect, P. Cuypers, was commissioned to restore the crypt and to reinstate as much as possible the original Romanesque fabric. The first restoration projects were also carried out on the church at the same time. Restoration of the church was resumed in , including the reconstruction of the side recesses in the cloverleaf layout. As faithful as possible a reconstruction of the old chancel was carried out on the basis of the old foundation plans that had been found.
The frescoes were painted between and by the Aachen-based priest, Goebbels. The tombstones of the abbots in the side aisles were removed and placed vertically outside the church and against the walls in the transept. From both inside and outside, they give an impression of grandeur, reflecting to some extent the status of the abbots, who had been rewarded with the right to wear the mitre ever since the time of van der Steghe.
The quadrangle, which housed a courtyard surrounded by the cloisters to the north of the church show little of the original form which was less elevated than today. The western side is more or less original, but the other sides have been raised and altered in the course of time. The eastern wing, which looks directly onto the gardens, was built by Moretti, an Aachen-based architect between and The splendid library which it houses has plasterwork designed in late eighteenth century rococo style.
To the south of the main complex is a farmstead dating from the end of the eighteenth century. For a long time it remained in private hands, but was bought back by Rolduc in and restored. The southern wing, on the right-hand side when you are facing the church, was built in as a school. Between and , the building that make up Rolduc, including the crypt and the church with their frescoes, underwent major restoration work.
In , Rolduc received the Europa Nostra Award, a prize awarded in recognition of projects that contribute to the upkeep of the European cultural heritage. Die Krypta wurde fertig gestellt. Nach Uneinigkeiten mit Embrico zog Ailbertus weg. Er starb im Jahr in Sechtem bei Bonn. Die Abtei wurde Kloosterrade genannt. Walram III von Limburg. Sein Grab befindet sich im Mittelgang der Kirche. Mitte des Jahrhundert reichte. Die Abtei von Ludingakerke war die wichtigste. Im Jahrhundert erlebte die Abtei eine lange Periode des geistigen und materiellen Verfalls.
Das letztendliche Internat wurde geschlossen. Dadurch entstanden die so genannten Pseudo-Querschiffe. Im Jahr war die Kirche fertig und wurde sie eingeweiht. Im sechzehnten Jahrhundert wurden Krypta und Altarraum dem Zeitgeist entsprechend der gotischen Bauweise angepasst, wobei die romanischen Elemente beseitigt wurden. Die zwei Seitenschiffe der Krypta und des Altarraums wurden abgerissen, die runden Fenster durch spitze Fenster ersetzt. Mitte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts wurde die Krypta mit Stuckarbeiten im Rokokostil versehen. Sie sind mit einfachen und ausdrucksvollen Schnitzereien versehen.
Auch an der Kirche wurden erste Restaurationsarbeiten vorgenommen. Jahrhundert auf. Es war lange in Privatbesitz. Sai a cosa mi riferisco, ammettilo…. Come tu non hai capito me…. Quando mi avvio ad una azione verso il mio ambiente, non trovo il vuoto, ma un mondo vivo di persone, fatti, storia.
Da un pezzo abbiamo capito che le emozioni hanno le loro buone ragioni, che la mente razionale non solo non sa cogliere, ma oltre una certa soglia, non riesce proprio a fermarle. Significa che le mie emozioni mi alleno fin da piccolo a sentirle, discriminarle, esserne consapevole, e soprattutto mi alleno a contenerle, filtrarle, trasformarle in energia che posso gestire, con la quale posso progettare gettare avanti me in un mondo esterno che include altri Io, altri Noi.
Ecco la prima. Per dirla proprio tutta, la nostra epoca sembra avere un rapporto proprio strano con le emozioni. E mancano parole che esprimono affetti ed emozioni. Voglia di raccontarsi La generazione emo ha i suoi strumenti per esprimersi. Il corpo innanzitutto, dicevamo, con la sua ritrovata esasperata? Attivazioni anche viscerali, ma molto emozionate. Per capire le emozioni ci vuole coraggio. Le parole per dirlo Parole con la P maiuscola: parole che sappiano cogliere le sfumature.
Ecco la prima lezione. Dal campo del biologico, degli istinti, delle pulsioni, al territorio del sociale, delle relazioni, dei valori. Facciamo una prova, adesso, qui. E ancora: quale filo, quale storia posso concatenare oggi con queste parole? Quali piccoli o grandi contrasti ho vissuto oggi? Come la ho manifestata, o nascosta? Ce ne sono alcune che mi accorgo di non aver mai sperimentato? E a questo piccolo elenco di parole per dirlo e di domande, cosa posso aggiungere di proprio mio?
Gli spazi, i tempi, i rituali Benedette emozioni, come sono delicate, ed esigenti! Uno spazio calmo, senza troppi stimoli. Ha bisogno di situazioni e momenti, di rituali, quasi, di celebrazioni. O al contrario mentre fingiamo di voler ascoltare voi e invece vi rovesciamo addosso come un torrente le nostre, di emozioni, senza spazi di punteggiatura per il dialogo.
Ci siamo posti un obbiettivo, sicuramente non semplice: fare prevenzione. I giovani che esprimono disagio, malessere, che abusano di alcool, di sostanze stupefacenti, che si comportano in modo violento e autolesionista, soffrono? Forse questi ragazzi sono psicologicamente anestetizzati, quindi non sentono.
Permetteteci una parentesi etimologica, prendiamo in esame due parole. Star bene o essere sani non significa, come forse molti credono non soffrire, non essere mai tristi. Significa invece sentire le emozioni, i sentimenti, in maniera adeguata alle circostanze e la sofferenza, il dolore e la morte, sono elementi essenziali della vita. Non sente la sua e non comprende quella degli altri. Ci chiediamo se la crisi dei valori appartenga ai giovani o al mondo degli adulti e se, di conseguenza, si rifletta sui primi.
Ci chiediamo cosa provano, quali sentimenti vivono coloro che sono a contatto con i ragazzi, che lavorano con essi o che sono loro legati affettivamente: gli adulti. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Books by Language. Amilcare A. Aguzzi-Barbagli U. Izze Calgary K. Bartlett Toronto I. Lavin I. Princeton M. Ciavolella Toronto J. Molinaro Toronto S. Ciccone U. Noce Toronto G. Clivio Toronto M. Bandinelli Predelli Montreal A. D'Andrea McGill P. Stewart McGill D.
L'adozionismo non era in fondo che una rivisitazione del subordinazionismo ariano. Just as the city itself survives through its constant management, here sounds are revealed through a process of technological mediation. Among the many religious communities spread throughout Renaissance Florence by the population of nuns in the city had reached 2, , Le Murate was an institution of crucial importance, because of its strong bonds with the most prominent families of the time. Beyond the enjoyment of Renaissance art, the convent of Le Murate was tightly connected with well-known citizens and institutions. I riff della Fender sono taglienti e sincopati senza mai essere ingombranti parliamo pur pur sempre di un guitar hero! Sappiamo molto bene che il reiki praticato in occidente fino ad oggi si differenziava notevolmente dalla suo forma originale. Dovunque il guardo io volgo Dalle finestre, nereggiar li vedo A selve, a gruppi, or densi ora dispersi.
Della Terza Harvard W. Temelini Windsor G. Polena Padova P.
Valesio Yale J. Vasoli Firenze S. Gilardino McGill E. Cover: II. XI, No. Dante e le forme dell 'allegoresi. David P. De Bujanda, cd. Index des Livres Interdits. Index de Venise ; Venise et Milan Bartlett Gian Piero Maragoni L 'onda e la spira. Pugliese Maria Pia Pozzato, ed. Leopardi nella critica internazionale; Fabio Finotti, Sistema letterario e diffusione del Decadentismo nell'Italia di fine ' Manuscripts should not exceed 30 type-written pages, double spaced and should be submitted in duplicate: the original and one photocopy.
Les manuscrits ne devraient pas dcpa. These days the aesthetics of the reception of the literary text and neo-Marxist aesthetics join in the affirmation that correlations, correspon- dences, metrical figures, significant forms and figures of literary discourse — in short, every level of the so-called text, from the phonemic to the ideological- cultural— are comprehensible and appreciable not only thanks to their real- ization within a system and structure, but also for the relation and interaction that each of these elements establishes with something that is not text, or rather with what we call "reality," provided that we believe that the world is not a discourse and that a thing is not a word.
I want to reassure that clever girl right away, before we proceed any further: it is not only us. On the contrary, we believe at least I believe in poetry and in things. Having said this, I know that I have placed myself apart from those who, by identifying word and thought, deny substantial differences between the modes and the types of discourse as well as between verbal discourse and non-verbal communication. Its identity is no more demonstrable than were the metaphysics of Aristotle or of St. Thomas, or the Kantian relation between phenomenon and essence.
What do I mean, then, if I say "context"? The ensemble of the circumstances in which literary discourse offers itself Or as Van Dijk wrote many years ago, the ensemble of psychological, sociological, historical, and anthropological conditions, actions and functions of literary texts. And what is the meaning of "conditions, actions and functions"?
At least two things: the first is the ensemble of pressures, forces, indexes, and vectors that, from the outside or from the context, move in the time and work of the author, determining his text; the second is the ensemble of pressures, forces, indexes and vectors that issue from the text to act upon the outside, or better, upon the context, constituted by the so-called consumers, by readers and listeners of today and tomorrow, and by their expectations.
If at this point, along with much cultural and literary sociology, we af- firm that what manifests itself in the literary work is an ensemble of social relations, there will be two ways of understanding this affirmation: either those relations coincide with the zone of existence and anthropological re- ality, which is by definition social, in which case to say "social relation" QUADERNI diialianislica Volume XI. The first case dissolves the text within a mechanically objective totality.
The second case dissolves the text within a mechanically subjective totality in the manner of idealist and nom- inalist critics. With the first position we would remain within the terms of a direct causality, mechanical and passive; there would be nothing more in the thing or in the text than what would have been in the "causes" or in the context, and thus the criticisms that dominate every vulgar determinism and sociologism would prove correct.
Friedrich Engels spoke of this in an oft-cited letter to Heinz Starkenburg with regard to literary realism. But even if we were to take into acount what Engels called "long periods" or cycles of greater amplitude , we could not avoid what occurs at every paralleling of the literary series and the socio-historical series. The circulation of literature would be equivalent to that of the stock market, not to the process of the creation of "surplus value.
In other words: in every true poem and in every great narration are con- tained elements that, beginning from the verbal form of the text, aim to touch upon or implicate extratextual spaces different from those that contributed to its birth. Here "true" and "great" signify precisely that addition or diversity, that coming from a faraway and barely-visible area, and also a going farther away, or rather towards something that is not yet visible. They present, in ad- vance, to the view of the world they manifest, they call upon those who will have to receive and interpret them.
This is, above all, the point of departure of all methodological discourses that preoccupy themselves with interpreta- tion and reception. To allude to cycles even longer than those described by Engels is not the same, however, as carrying out a mere extension of the cycles that are discernable or at least knowable from human history, but it is rather to indicate that those cycles assume the characteristics of the eras or better: of the anthropological zones that see reconciled, and eventually superimposed, the history of man and the history of nature.
I now intend to touch upon a hypothesis that serves to individuate some of the extratextual elements understood as cultural levels of "extremely long duration" that are supposed present in the two moments of every text: that of production and that of reception or consumption. I assume a portion of a linguistic theory of the poetic function of language — that of Jakobson — and I parallel it with a famous philosophical myth that was intended to interpret a nodal moment of interhuman relations, a node that is at once metaphysical, anthropological and socio-historical.
Il Chiaro e lo Scuro nel mondo - La Mescolanza (Nuova Umanità Vol. 5) (Italian Edition) - Kindle edition by Rosario Castello. Download it once and read it on. Results 1 - 16 of 28 Il Chiaro e lo Scuro nel mondo - La Mescolanza (Nuova Umanità Vol. 5) (Italian Edition). by Rosario Castello | Jun 21, Kindle Edition.
Obviously, one would not at all want to detract from the decisive dignity of philological verification, which is always a verification of a prius. Nor, on the other hand, would one want to run the risk of the extreme position of reception aesthetics, that is, to consider the text as the very creation of its receivers.
What I am saying certainly has to do with the Russian formalist thesis concerning the establishing of dominant elements or levels in literary texts, which, with the variation of conditions of interpretation, alternate command, so to speak. From this point of view what I am saying comes close, rather, to a theory of genres, indeed to a sort of "transcendental psychology" of genres, where, for example, "prose" and "poetry" instead of distinguishing themselves by different degrees of rhythm do so by different degrees of intensity and dominance of language's poetic function in Jakobson's sense over the other copresent functions; but also by other means of which I will soon speak.
As we know, Jakobson affirms that in the poetic function of language, equivalence and similarity prevail over contiguity, or rather over the norms of verbal succession. Where the prevalence of this function over the other functions of language is more intense, the more would every single text be, or tend to be, a space and time closed in upon itself, centripetal; an identity, an eternal return, constantly privileging symmetry, harmony, a calculated game of variables and invariables, tending towards tautology, towards the confir- mation of the initial given.
The language of poetry, like magical, religious and liturgical language, would reveal itself, we know, as the language of repetition, of doubling, of the return, of parallelism. Perhaps it is not useless to remember that this conception of poetry as lyric and of lyric as a tenden- tial unity turned in upon itself is only the projection of a well-determined aesthetic and social experience, that of the lyric of the moderns, from the origins of symbolism to the present; and I believe instead that one might as well look to Hegel's lessons on aesthetics where he writes: "But however far the work of art may form a world inherently harmonious and complete, still, as an actual single object, it exists not for itself, but for us, for a public which sees and enjoys the work of art" I, iii, 3.
And it is indeed from Hegel that I draw reference although conscious of altering, by interrupting it, the dialectical process of his thinking for what I called the philosophical myth to compare it with the Jakobsonian thesis of the two axes of language. I refer to the much celebrated pages of the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the dialectic of master and slave.
The servile labor of which Hegel speaks is a moment of the Spirit but it is also a phase of human history, and far from concluded. The present so-called post- industrial societies seem only to have interiorized that relation and that conflict within each of us while in their periphery there endures the servile condition 8 Franco Fortini of the suppliers of raw materials and of those condemned to repetitive labor. Labor — and even "artistic" labor, from the bricolage of the so-called prim- itives to the medieval and renaissance guild of artisans and finally to the modern writer seated at his personal computer — is a sequence of operations through which the slave defends himself from death and, in retrospect, eman- cipates himself.
The production of discourse is formational. It gives birth to "forms. It will be so at least until the absolute — which is inherent in the form itself— does not induce behind its apparent serenity a frost of anxiety in the lords threatened by the labor of the slaves who have transferred, translated, their own strain against time into an object that inevitably announces the end of the masters of time.
Hence the Stendhalian "promise of happiness," of which Adorno speaks, can turn into a sinister promise of misfortune. The servile time of labor even literary labor could be homologous, thus, to the syntagmatic axis of discourse, whether the anonymous peasant or Goethe himself were to follow it. Indeed, when the worker of words will want to sign his own pages perhaps at the foot of the page in the dedication to the most powerful lord or merchant, or in thanks for a contribution from this or that foundation he will reveal nothing so clearly as his own condition.
Never has that illusion been so alive as in the poetry from Romanticism to the present, when following the ages and the societies in which sacerdotal and legislative functions did not distinguish themselves from literary ones poets considered themselves the unacknowledged legislators of humanity, and as Sartre shows in some pages of his Flaubert the writers made themselves up as feudal lords in order to eliminate their condition as wage-earners, as they were already called in the Manifesto in Even today the signature is the most economical form of social promotion.
The temporal processuality of language finds its limit only in silence. We can thus call "prose" those texts in which the syntagmatic moment, of succession Opus servile 9 and of articulation along the temporal axis, tends to prevail over closed space and over the sphere of repetition, conclusion and return, which is metaphor- ical and "poetic" or, more properly, lyrical. The reality of writing exists between these two poles: where the proccssuality or temporal movement inherent in any linguistic sequence opposes itself, with a high degree of coun- tertendency, against repetition, identity, circularity, immobility.
Persuasive, rational, demonstrative or narrative discourse is pushed towards lordly otium and towards consumption, the suspension of work, recreation and rest. This need or exigency is satisfied, we know, even by the apparently most "hori- zontal" forms such as romance narratives; but actually even in those "servile" forms there is tension concerning the event, the "suspense," while what is "lordly," rather, is the reordering process of the narrative trajectory, which, beginning from the end, transforms what was at first arranged in unidirectional exegesis into a circle, or rather into a repetitive and closed process.
And, nat- urally, the epic and the romance made use of techniques of retardation and of repetition which lyric, especially modern lyric, has eminently privileged as Bakhtin has shown us , such as the iteration of epithets, metrical structures, the rhythmic recurrences of characters, situations and sentences, the so-called "style" of the narration. Not accidentally, the Soviet critic related what he called the "carnivalesque moment" to the "polyphony" of romance; not acci- dentally, historically, the passage from the epic a "high" genre and, through its metrical foundations, very close to the de-realizing processes of "poetry" to the "novel" was perceived, in many places and times, as a descent towards the lowly along the scale of social classes.
Excess and disharmony emerge from the servile moment when it wants to advance on the long process of emancipation by means of carnival or of plebeian revolt and, much like these, excess and disharmony are ephemeral. When, as is normal in the history of literature and frequent in political revolution, nothing more occurs than that the leopards overturn the sacred urns, as Kafka says, one enters into liturgy.
According to an extreme interpretation of Jakobson 's thought which I cannot share completely but which is useful in order to make evident that which serves the present discourse the poetic function would correspond, then, to the "already formed," where time is subtracted, reduced to a minimum or folded into a circle. It is a product; but among products it is the one that best conceals its own origin. IVir singen wie die Vogel singen, says the singer of a Goethean ballad, before the King and his knights and ladies.
And, as an associate member of the lordly class, he can refuse the golden chain, preferring a simple glass of wine; but it was not this way when he composed this ballad of his along the dusty and muddy road or in the tavern populated by rogues and wenches. And what is more, he forgets, or does not want to know, that the apparent gratuitousness of his song was helping to establish always greater possibilities of lordly domination over companions of his own sort.
For this, according to the times, he will now be sent to eat with the 10 Franco Fortini servants, now be associated with the throne, sharing a little bit of power, maligned or loaded with benefices, buried in communal graves or in the pantheons of schools and deluxe editions.
And the "dilettante" will instead be the one who wants to participate in the concrete life of creative work without relinquishing lordly consumption. This relation between art and domination, like that between eros and dom- ination, ensures that literary writings appear continually divided between a "poetic" identity — which ever moves towards completeness and inviolability and, at its limits, becomes echolalia and ecstasy — and a "prosaic" identity which is the uninterrupted exploration and elaboration of the unordered and of things to come, whence challenge and research.
At least this is the pattern of the last two centuries of western literature. Thus the question long dis- cussed by T. Adorno reasserts itself: that of the "conciliatory" character of poetry, conciliatory if and because intransitive. Because Adorno views that "conciliatory" character of poetry as always inseparable from that of refusal, rupture, denunciation, negation, transgres- sion.
For this reason he believed in avant-garde art or in the avant-gardism of art and poetry. This, he wrote, is like Achilles' spear: it wounds and heals. But we who have experienced, much more than Adorno could have foreseen, the enormous development of the culture industry as the extreme form of modern slavish domination, are brought rather to believe that, how- ever inadequate it may be, the only honorable way for poetry to proceed in our own times certainly does not consist in its resistance to "conciliation" nor in a forward flight in order to save its own capacities of denial.
In contrast to Adorno, we have discerned in the spirit of the most recent avant-gardes but also, to a certain degree, in those of our entire century an objective complic- ity with oppression, which only those slaves enlisted to repress the revolts of other slaves know how to develop. The culture industry and mass nihilism are responsible for furnishing negations at a discount. As Jameson has written, we can overcome this, if we believe it necessary to do so, only by putting into crisis its premises and procedures.
Because, that is, by "imitating" nature and history it tends also to imitate its unlimited ambiguity and polysemy and thus to present itself— however much times and readers rotate and change, in the history of fortune and criticism — with a wealth of Opus servile 11 contradictory meanings; indeed, just as nature and history do around us and in us. Usually, in the ncoplatonic tradition, we associate the poicin with liberty and the praiicin with necessity; here we suggest, instead, that every work, even "poetic" work, is in the order of necessity and servile and that not even birds sing in "liberty.
Only thus is the contradiction apparent between servile condition and intellectual status attributed by many societies and civilizations to the poet, co-opted from the caste of scribes and priests by means of the privilege of writing. In fact, the author is also the first consumer of himself, and he thus shares in the unavoidable duplicity of freed men. From here we can return to the historical and sociological description, or better, the philological description, of works, which can only prove to us the changeable and extremely variable realities that manifest themselves between the two extreme poles that we have discussed.
Indeed, to abandon the Hegelian scale that has helped us to arrive at this point, we can say that the tension between the lordly and servile state and between "poetry" and "prose" need no longer be read as a moment in the phenomenology of Spirit but as a depositum historiae, as one speaks of alluvial and also hereditary deposits; something that takes part in both geology and tradition at the same time.
A condition which, by its relative unfathomability, has many of the characteristics of what Jameson has called the "political unconscious. The point is not only to augment the amplitude or duration of cycles consequent to certain fundamental modes and relations of production; but rather, as has been said above, to look at those that, in their duration and amplitude, present themselves to view with a constancy similar to that of the constellations which, however, we know to be anything but constant.
Not so-called "human nature" but certainly some of its parts and ages — such as the sphere of primal needs, or the typology of the relations between the sexes or between the different ages of man — are examples of such fundamental modes and relations. Even those ages of humanity that are historically approachable or very close to ourselves present themselves as relatively unfathomable. Do not the forms of pre-Christian slavery reassert themselves, perhaps, in the quotidian sexual psychopathology of the modern cities?
In the final analysis, the unconscious is a forgotten society and in that forgotten society or, to put it better, translated and masked in the current terms of the present society the master-slave relation is the capital moment. Its reflection is visible in the current ideologies of art and of literature and, most of all. Such criticism cannot reduce itself to a mere dismantling of ideologies dominant in one time or one given society. It must remind itself of the deep structures that conceal these ideologies from view.
Relations of power and domination have this is the summary of the hypothesis that I have tried to explain a relationship with the functions of language that is not only symbolical or allegorical. And does not the system of genres, beyond the correspondence with capital moments of psychic life, found itself also on the history of those moments? And therefore also on the historical forms of the master-slave relation?
The history of feelings and thought mirrors itself in the history of interhuman relations determined by conflicts of survival and also by the profound fantasms that inhabit us, and therefore by the political unconscious and finally by the universe of needs and of the political economy. Why not turn to ask ourselves if the various degrees of the figures of discourse and of rhythm, the succession of the syntactic axis that overturns in flight towards paradigmatic immobility, and in short all the interweavings of "prose" and "poetry" in which we live, do not have their roots and their flowers also in what half a century ago Bertolt Brecht called ''the dry, 'ignoble ' lexicon of the dialectical economy"?
Juliana Schiesari Mo u rning and Melancholia: Tasso and the Dawn of Psychoanalysis The dialogue between literature and psychoanalysis has provided some of the most virulent paradigms for critical practice in the twentieth century. Just as a vast array of approaches to texts has been informed by psychoanalytic theory, so psychoanalytic discourse has revealed its debt not only to the liter- ary texts that name some of its major concepts but also to the more complex insistence of tropes, genres and narrative models which have structured that discourse's various elaborations.
Until recently though, comparatively little has been done to question the historical and cultural limits of Freud's theo- retical constructs in fact, quite a bit has been done, notably by the Jungian movement, precisely to dehistoricize Freud's categories into universal truths of the human condition , not in order to dismiss them out of antiquarian re- action nor to insert them into a comfortable narrative of development, but to bring difference to bear upon the Freudian models in order to rethink the scope of their applicabilities and pertinences.
Rather, to elaborate a history of the neuroses is to analyze their curious empowerment through literary and cultural representations, the force of whose mythic transmissions does not al- low the psychoanalyst to construct them objectively as in a vacuum but may invade or inflect the very formulations psychoanalysis attempts to produce on their account. The following essay mobilizes a psychoanalytic approach for the discussion of one neurosis, melancholia, in one of its prime represen- tatives, Torquato Tasso, in order to re-place Freud's essay, "Mourning and Melancholia" 4: , within the context produced by our analysis.
But, as these scholars also and accurately note, Petrarch was still "far from describing" this contradictory ecstasy of sadness as melancholy. In fact, it was the philosopher, Marsilio Ficino, who, in the fifteenth century, ex- plicitly drew the "equation" between the Aristotelian category of melancholy and the Platonic notion of 'divine frenzy. In this fifteenth century pathos of grief, there existed a sense of the tragic, of finitude coupled with a heightened awareness of the self, a self different from the common vulgiis and by virtue of this difference, extraordinary.
The melancholic not only became perceived as an exclusive someone but he also perceived himself as exclusive: his identity bore the supposed traits of difference but the difference became so extreme that the melancholic's world paradoxically belonged to a hyper-exclusivity such that no difference could exist. The very nature of the melancholic was to be that of the self split against the self, in a dialogue with its own imaginary, de- sirous of fusion and frustrated because of this impossibility.
In other words, the more the artist suffered, especially through self-denial, the more he became emblematic of superior aesthetic virtues. Inasmuch as many philosophical treatises of the fifteenth century dealt with the thematics of the artist as melancholic, Torquato Tasso emerged as the figure in the late Renaissance who most explicitly embodied the pathological status given those who grieve too long for an impossible union with the Ideal through their fixated desire to negate finitude.
He accordingly came to define the new subjectivity of the "homo melancholicus" to an extreme: i. With Tasso, we, therefore, see the rise of a subjectivism which finds its source of identity within melancholy, the by now preferred illness of the gods. Yet as such a divine madness, wherein the melancholic suffers the exclusive fantasy of being the chosen one, precisely because he suffers, what emerges is the image of a figure. Tasso, emblematic of severe states of depression, persecutionary fantasies and babbling madness. First begun in and finished in , it was written during the poet's incarceration in the prison hospital of Santa Anna.
From this moment, which I will return to. His own particular form of melancholia is here said to resemble a hydra. The dialogue then proceeds onto a lengthy discussion of the phenomenon of spirits and demons, and finally ends with an analysis of the nature and duty of the ambassador, understood as he who goes between the prince or representative of the state and the individual subject or citizen. In this particular case. Tasso is referring to Vincenzo Gonzaga, the person whom the poet hoped would intercede on his behalf in securing his freedom from Duke Alfonso of Ferrara.
I would like, then, to discuss briefly the first two sections of this text: Tasso's vision and his discussion of melancholia. Let us begin at the beginning, at the dawn or morning of his mourning. For Tasso's spirit generates in the poet a desire to give birth to something beautiful in "some gentle and beautiful souls," in alcun animo bello e gentile . The exclusivity of this brotherhood, as well as its fundamental narcissism, is brought forth when the poet asks to see the body of the voice he hears, a body which the spirit says is an image not unlike that of Tasso's soul which he would have taken with him from 16 Juliana Schiesa ri the heavens when the soul became united to his body.
The poet desirous to see the body of this spirit, which putatively mirrors the spirit in his body, is granted his wish.
In a dramatic moment, with a gust of wind and a profusion of sunrays, the spirit reveals his form to Tasso while the poet is still lying in his bed. What appears to Tasso in this literal in-corporation is a young man un giovane , beardless non avea le guance d'alcun pelo ricoperte , of white skin and blond hair bianco e biondo , and with only a thin veil sottilissimo velo which covered nothing of his beautiful person che nulla ricopriva de la sua bella persona This erotic figure of a young man, who embodies the spiritual interlocutor whose body reflects Tasso's own soul inspires in the poet the desire to generate, to partorire, to give birth, to something beautiful This birth, he is quick to qualify, is not corporal but spiritual.
And picking up the traditional school of love psychology, he says that such desire is born in him through the virtue he sees descending from the spirit's eyes into the poet's heart. The metaphor of birth is continued by the poet who says that he now feels the "itch" prurito of "new wings" novelle piume sprouting on himself, wings which his soul had unjustly lost in its violent descent into its body But since the poet is sure that now his experience is not a dream, he asks whether he is not in the grips of fantasy, of the imaginative force of the vis imaginativa.
In raising the question of a possible "alienazione di mente," the text then turns around the epistemologica! Tasso frames the discussion of the epistemologica! The poet says that his mental alienation is related to two types of melancholy. And in an unusual move, the poet analyzes his melancholy. In so doing. The outburst of melancholia as disease, as a sudden but extreme form of mental alienation can be seen in such figures as Pentheus and Orestes. The gifted, innate form of melancholia, also known as divine furor, can be brought to the surface by love or by Bacchus.
Tasso says that although he does not recognize his own melancholic madness in the figures of Pentheus or of Orestes, he nevertheless does not deny his being mad. He proposes that his melancholia, this new form of madness, which is peculiarly his own at least in his mind , has other sources. Perhaps it is a surplus of melancholy. This self-conscious discourse about his melancholy discloses the nature of what is at stake: one's sclf-rcprcscntation as melancholic, as therefore in a state of mental alienation ycl within this state still able to reason, to discourse on the epistemological problems associated with a subjectivism whose only source of affirmation comes from a mirrored dialogue with an Ideal, with the motivating force which drives his eros onto the scene of knowledge.
Saying that he suffers from both melancholy as illness and melancholy as divine inspiration and even more so from a "soverchia maninconia," the poet is led to describe through a certain analogy the problems associated with this excess: namely, persistent doubt and what we will come to understand as being a defensive splitting of the ego.
The analogy is with the mytholog- ical creature of the Hydra. Tasso says that melancholy resembles a Hydra more than a chimera because, says the poet, as soon as one of the melan- cholic's thoughts is truncated, tronco un pensiero, two are suddenly born in its place che due ne sono subito nati in quella vece . Certainly, this image of the Hydra cannot help but remind us of Freud's Medusa's head, the mythological symbol which Freud associates to the fear of castration and to a general misogyny: not only does truncation obviously recall castration, but as Freud points out, the "multiplication of penis symbols" such as found in the Medusa'a serpentine hairs or, for that matter, in the Hydra's many heads, also signifies castration "for they replace the penis the absence of which is the cause of the horror.
As we know from Hesiod, the Medusa and the Hydra are related. Both the Medusa and the Hydra are misogynist repre- sentations of women which ward off the threat of sexual difference through a male logic of identity wherein what is not same is represented as utterly and horrendously different. Hence, the Messenger who visits Tasso not surprisingly resembles his own projected, idealized self, framed within a context of divine Love and inspi- ration, a context whereby eros and desire for another are suppressed by a divine madness which excludes alterity while at the same time appropriating a feminization to the extent that the poet posits himself in bed as the recip- ient of the Logos.
It is, thus, not surprising that within such a framework, the Hydra comes to represent the subject's own fears of castration, namely the recognition of his finitude and inscribed limitations within a pre-existing symbolic order. Thus Tasso's metaphor of the Hydra for the melancholic's excess of thought not only signifies a denial or turning away from the recogni- tion of one's communality with women as, for example, in the experience of disempowerment, but it also mobilizes what Freud calls an "apotropaic act" Juliana Schiesari such that the fact of sexual difference is denied even as the fear of that difference, castration, is taking in as a symptom so that the ego can sub- sequently divest itself of the fear.
The Hydra thus functions in the same way as the melancholic because each time a thought has been "truncated," or a loss mourned for, the loss is then doubled or two mournful thoughts are born in the place of one. This ferocious brand of melancholy, soverchia maninconia, turns the work of mourning into a perpetual labor, a more-than-Herculean task, one whose excessive — or rather infinite — production of its own loss comes to define the ego precisely in terms of its loss as the condition of its selfhood: a self forever mourning the loss of its own self.
The gap left by the truncated thought can be seen to be filled in, though, by the production of an imaginary system such as the ensuing, long discourse on demonology, which mobilizes late Renaissance notions of "sympathy" and mutual attraction in an attempt to explain away all sorts of phenom- ena which remain inexplicable within the framework of current "scientific" thought. The relation between castration anxiety and melancholia can be found elsewhere in Tasso.
For instance, in the celebrated twelfth and thirteenth cantos of the Gerusalemme Liberata, we find another scene where truncation is at issue within a context of mourning. Tancredi has betrayed the woman he loves by unwittingly killing her in a duel which moves like an erotic and macabre dance and within which Thanatos conquers. Tre volte il cavalier la donna stringe con Ic robuste braccia, ed altrettante da que' nodi tenaci ella si scinge, nodi di fer nemico e non d'amante. Tornano al ferro, e l'uno e l'altro il tinge con molte piaghe; e stanco ed anelante e questi e quegli al fin pur si ritira, e dopo lungo faticar respira.
They take up their swords again and color them with the blood of many wounds, until weak and breathless, they both retire after their long labor to breathe again. Spinge egli il ferro nel bel sen di punta che vi s'immerge e 'I sangue avido beve; e la veste, che d'or vago trapunta le mammelle stringca tenera e leve. Deep into her lovely bosom he drives the point of his sword which sinks and avidly drinks her blood and her gold embroidered vest that tenderly and lightly elapses her breast, hotly swells with it.
She already feels herself dying, and her foot gives way, weak and languid. On another level, the tragedy is explained by the fact that Tancredi was unable to recognize Clorinda, since we already know from a previous canto that Clorinda went out to fight without her usual armor. The guilt which Tancredi experiences at her death-murder is frought with this "error" of misrecognition and also with the inevitability of the event. In the following Canto, we see the eventual demise that this event has upon Tancredi's ability to act, namely to act according to his duty as a soldier and to cut down the cypress tree which would free the enchanted forest of its incantation.
In these two cantos, we read the necessity of immobilizing the threatening powers of Clorinda's amazonian femininity. She needs to be rendered pow- erless, for her prowess, here represented as pagan, unfeminine and virulent, must yield to an orthodoxy of Christian beautitude. As we have seen in canto 12, Clorinda's aggressivity which we have already understood to be the fruit of her upbringing is sundered through her death by a beloved from whom she receives baptism.
She, thus, becomes accordingly redeemed through the Christian rite which renders her benign and "feminine" by locking her up and away into a beautific. Christian heaven. In other words, her murder is somehow absolved by virtue of her being now reborn, through baptism, into a state of unworldly happiness and peace She has become gentle and gentrified. What is then supposed to happen but doesn't, as we shall see, is to allow Tancredi the possibility to be the hero of the Christian mission, the conquest of Jerusalem, by cutting down the cypress tree.
The sadism implicit in the murder of Clorinda as well as in the desire to conquer Jerusalem, the city of Christ, from the infidels is never really an issue in the Gerusalemme. If there are any casualties to this over-riding presumption, it might be read in Tancredi himself. For in Canto 13, Tancredi pays dearly for Clorinda's death precisely by his incapacity to cut the tree, an act which would free the forest of its evil incantation so that war machines, made out of the forest's trees, could be manufactured in the name of Christian victory over Jerusalem.
For Tasso represents, in the figure of Tancredi, the merciless fixation of a subject caught between word and deed, between representation and experience. Tancredi cannot cut the cypress upon which are inscribed the "evil" words of the magician Ismeno: O tu che dentro a i chiostri de la morte osasti por, guerriero audace, il piede, deh! How strange it seems that these words should be the words of the evil sorcerer.
When cut, the tree begins to bleed, and we cannot help but remember the previous canto where the sword drank in the blood that killed Clorinda: "e '1 sangue avido beve. Son di sensi animati i rami e i tronchi, e micidial sei tu, se legno tronchi. The branches and trunks are alive with sensation, and a murderer are you, if you cut a limb. Though Tancredi has been forewarned of the forest's enchantment, he still cannot help but act as if those sounds really were the sounds of Clorinda's voice.
The mimicking of Clorinda's voice thus closes this scene of eerie seduction by the so-called forces of evil in a way which leaves Tancredi powerless and transfixed. Once again, a disembodied voice exerts a power- ful seduction over a listener, anxious to misrecognize fiction as fact, illusion as reality, or otherwise put, readily willing to believe in ghosts. It is be- cause of this incapacity to act in face of such simulacra, that Tancredi has been heralded as the melancholic character of the Gerusalemme Liberata, per eccellenza. For the false Clorinda, here inextricably bound up within the tree, acts like the Hydra to produce an infinite repetition of loss and mourning as the sign of the suffering beloved.
Yet both Clorinda's auditory image, and its emanation from within the phallic symbol of the cypress tree point also to woman as other within Tasso's epistemological and moral system. The "good" non-other Clorinda is made into a safe, non-sensual, necrophilic love object, relieved of her womanly experience. The "false" Clorinda is woman as Other, is like the Hydra herself: an enigmatic source of horror which castrates the male by virtue of "her" assault on his consciousness, by virtue of the ever-insisting character of her difference, which ceaselessly re-marks itself even in its denial.
The "appagamento" of this act of hubris is that woman continues to haunt the male subject as a fearful, phantasmatic gap within that all-inclusive system, the one that sees her as Other and wants to render this strangeness benign. The totalizing empowerment of a discourse based on such aggressivity, fueled by the desire to reduce difference and legitimated by an ethos of aesthetic victimization persists throughout the reworkings of Tasso's major epic under the guise of a Christian ideology which sets out to hegemonize and homogenize Jerusalem, the topographical equivalent of the female other as that which must not only be Liberata in the epic's title of but also and more definitively Conquistata in the title of the revised epic of Within the apotropaic workings of such imaginary systems as demonology or the ideology of the Church militant, that is, in systems reactively defined by the "horror vacuus," we read the self-doubts to which the melancholic is subject precisely because of his inability to accept castration, to recognize the limits that define him, paradoxically framed by his continuous need to assuage that doubt, which remains as the telltale sign of the castration that would be denied.
Mirroring the analogy of the melancholic's multiplicity of thoughts as similar to the Hydra, however, and refracting the melancholic's constitutive loss of self is a certain fragmentation of the body, whose parts then become 22 Juliana Schiesari available for fetichization. It thereby engenders a psychosis of elite difference and thus of sameness. Let us consider that, by soverchia maninconia, the poet is unconsciously representing in an economic framework, the excess of narcissistic libido par- tially damned up through the repression constituted by a model of purity and sacredness, while it the mechanism of demand from an external absolute model is also redirecting the overflow of narcissistic libido into a discourse which would exclude alterity.
It leaves open an avenue for the vis imagina- tiva, conditioned by a western metaphysics of immanence, to imagine self in the likeness of a higher being. Therefore, the melancholic proceeds to a double appropriation of incorporation. On the one hand, the melancholic appropriates a feminine position by making of himself the exclusive subject of difference through metaphors of birth and receptivity, which are simul- taneously corporeal and non-corporeal. On the other hand, he engenders a fetichized model of the body which both points to the subject's rejection of the female body which stands for corruptibility and limitation, and to his de- sire to replace it with a preferred body, the body of the text, of disembodied words which inaugurate the aura of his mo u rning fantasy and signify his privileged relation, as poet, with the divine.
The text represents the tongue of the poet, the phallic material which attests to the reality of his vision. This vision, thus, reveals itself to be a sort of intra-subjective cop- ulation, the only eros available to the subject within such a self-enclosed system. This system, dependent upon its intra-corporality the ear and the tongue , attempts to presence the impossible, Tasso's eros, by being at the service of an impossible union, a union of sexuality and anima, and which can, therefore, only be represented by the Logos.
But in this case. Logos as Eros belongs only to a privileged few. The ear receives this message of love from the messenger. Furthermore, speaking through the ear recalls the poet's amatory sonnets wherein he is stricken by love for his lady through the ear. Here, as in his sonnets, the power of love's seduction through the ear, signals its difference from the traditional topos of being love stricken through the eyes, since this aural mark of enamourment has primacy over the eyes. In the Messaggiero, Tasso wants to see the voice which first he hears and which beckons to him.
Furthermore, the aural and oral dialectic marks this poet as the privileged receiver of sound, a medium which in the appropriately poetic form of music has often been considered a cure for the troubled ear, as a cure for melancholy. We need only think of the biblical figure Saul whose own brooding spirit was pacified through melody.
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