So, I bought used copies of other books she wrote or co-wrote, hoping that the dust jackets might give me some clues. Fathers Are Parents Too , co written with Dr. Constance J.
Foster argues that we should share the wealth. If Foster is at times too willing to affiliate free trade with freedom, she also very rightly stresses the need to work together:. Only human brotherhood and the equality of all men, of all colors and races, will work.
In the past some people have had more clothes and food and houses than they could use, while others have not had nearly enough. Unless we can build a world in the future in which everybody has enough, then no peace will last long. Comments 1. Nine Kinds of Pie. Archive for Constance J. Who was Constance J. But who can argue, in this life or the next? There's always room for pie.
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Please try again later. This chart is from an otherwise really well-done story on CNN Money : The problem is that the percentages are out of the births within each ethnicity, so they can't just be added up like that.
Some Rules of Thumb There are no strict rules about how and when to use them. They have to make sense for your data. What does that mean?
You'll either have to add an other category or use a different chart type. You're comparing the parts to the whole. If you're comparing numbers to each other, say which product makes you the most money, a bar chart or similar is going to be a much more precise representation. If you're looking at how much of your total revenue comes from product A though, a pie chart is a good way of showing that.
There's a small number of slices. If your data has more than 10 or so slices, that's probably too many. This is not a strict limit by any means, and depending on your data and use case, it might be higher. But if you go over about a dozen, you had better have a good reason for doing so. The values have to differ. If the values are all very similar, you're just going to end up with something that looks like a wheel. Small differences in slices are hard to tell, so people won't be able to judge which slices are larger or smaller with any confidence.
You don't need a pie chart to show that the values are similar, and a bar chart is going to give you better means of comparing them. I don't actually know of research to support this, but it just appears to be a good idea to sort the slices by value, unless there's a good reason that some other order makes more sense. Start at 12 o'clock.
Again not something I've found research on and when we've looked at this in our study data, we've found no evidence for slices starting at the vertical axis to be easier to read , but it's generally considered a good idea. If nothing else, it'll make the chart look better. Pies vs.