Organisation du travail (French Edition)

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source It explains how every time humanity has shifted to a new stage of consciousness, it has also invented a radically more productive organizational model. Could we be facing another critical juncture today? Could we be about to make such a leap again? Part 2 serves as a practical handbook. Using stories from real-life case examples businesses and nonprofits, schools and hospitals , this section describes in detail how this new, soulful way to run an organization works. How are these organizations structured and how do they operate on a day-to-day basis? There are no job descriptions, no targets, hardly any budgets.

In their place come many new and soulful practices that make for extraordinarily productive and purposeful organizations. Part 3 examines the conditions for these new organizations to thrive. What is needed to start an organization on this new model? Is it possible to transform existing organizations? What results can you expect at the end of the day?


Most books on organizations are written for people hoping to find the secret key to gaining market share, beating competition and increasing profits. They offer advice on how to better play the game of success within the current management paradigm. It is written for people founders of organizations, leaders, coaches, and advisors who sense that something is broken in the way we run organizations today and who feel that something entirely different is called for… but wonder what that might be.

Click here to read the introduction. In terms of integral sophistication, there is simply nothing like it out there. A stimulating and inspiring read! It's deeply different. It is the Good To Great for a more enlightened age. This is the original edition that has already sold more than , copies and has been translated into many different languages. Each issue consists of thematic dossier of testimony, review and interviews. The most obvious difference between the journals is that the French dossiers are about issues related to Communication and Organization and do not deal with public relations, while the Brazilian ones focus more on issues related to Organizational Communication and interfaces with other knowledge, including public relations.

Tables 1 and 2 make it easy to display the contents showing a clear difference.

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We tried to order the diversity of articles, elaborating a classification from the epistemological stance 4 of the authors and of published articles. The keywords reveal the ties that the researcher tries to weave with the scientific community of the studied field. The analysis of abstracts has enabled us to identify the subjects treated by the researchers at a given moment, and to recognize the complexity of our universe "scientific community".

Heavily criticized at the time, Morgan's matrix is based on two assumptions: the nature of the Social Sciences objective or subjective and science radical change or adjustment. This matrix ended in four sociological paradigms: functional, interpretative, radical humanist and radical structuralist.

Mesure et analyse de l’indice de résilience (RIMA)

Therefore, we work with the epistemological paradigms, interpretive and critical functionalist, because we consider them the major. The corpus of this research was composed of dossiers from 15 numbers of the two journals published in the period from to , selected as the reflection of the academic community in the field of Organizational Communication. From each issue, we analysed the total of articles.

FRENCH TRANSLATION QUIZ = organisation du travail

We bet on selecting the same publication period in an attempt to avoid distortions regarding analysis of the themes in the files and to understand their scope and the maturation of the field. This period seemed acceptable to us, because it allowed comparisons and recognition of practices and developments of theoretical questions addressed at different times. Associated with the positivist paradigm and also known as "ballistics vision of communication", the functionalist approach is present in the files of each journal analised in the countries.

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One of the postulates of this school is the notion of determinism found in telegraph Communication model 6 , often cited by authors who maintain an instrumental Communication proposal, which is based on the imposition of laws and technical schemes to recipient. According to this paradigm, individuals are products of the environment and respond to stimuli.

The organization is a concrete structure in which the Communication becomes a tangible substance that moves in a downward and lateral, upward, associated with a support. Messages, "vectors of information", are seen as physical forms that have spatial-temporal positions and exist independently of the sender and the recipient. Therefore, for functionalist researchers, the essence of Communication lies in the transmission of messages, information, and in the study of the effects of Communication channels, considered as a tool or technique.

In this scenario, the Communication in the organization is appreciated as an integrator, i. It considers Communication as an artifact, or control instrument of persuasion, conceived as an adjustment variable in an organization, that can be bounded by physical borders, as a container PUTNAM, The authors of the papers studied that are based on such an approach give preference to the links with the management and the study of consequences expected or not by the organization, anchored by procedures essentially hypothetical-deductive, privileging quantitative methodologies and statistics.

The interpretative paradigm, very recognized in the theories of organizations since the end of the s, considers the collective as a result of the subjective experiences of their members. The school has an interpretative vision on the world and demand s an in-depth understanding of the phenomena. The organization is conceived as a socially constituted reality, an emerging and inter-subjective creation in a symbolic space built for signs where the actors reinvent reality, continuously, through actions of Communication.

Communication is not simply an organizational activity, but it creates, legitimizes and recreates the social structures that make up the organization node, thus becoming "Organizing Communication". According to the works of Linda Putnam or Karl E. Weick regularly cited by French authors, the interpretative vision, highlighted in papers, implies a particular way of conceiving the organizational structure, which is opposed to the objectivism inherent to functionalists works and proposes a vision of an organization that is doing itself all the time, in constant construction.

The privileged methodological procedure is empirical, following an inductive reasoning based on qualitative data practically systematic interviews or in surveys, called understanding, ethnographic and hermeneutics, aiming at the understanding of the actors — the organization and its stakeholders — and the processes of collective and individual meanings.

We realize in many texts of the Organicom journal, the reflective and questioning stance of the authors in relation to the Organization and the Communication. They conceive the organization as a space of interaction and the Communication as a process that involves the organization and its relationship with society. Its legitimacy has grown significantly in France since In Brazil, this paradigm is beginning to be recognized in the field of Communication in the late s and only in becomes an epistemological dimension of reach and researchers use it as a perspective on their researches and studies.

This approach considers the organization as a place of domination, in which power relations are asymmetric. It puts in check the contemporary capitalism and it is characterized by the critique of social discourse. In addition, the approach encompasses the ideas related to managerial ideology —limiting and controller —, denounces the hegemonic practices and the struggle for power, and analyzes the places of conflict and abuse caused by economic, social and cultural inequality in the organizational environment.

Enhances endurance, emancipation and tries to deconstruct the elements of a culture of submission, seeking to reveal the strategies of manipulation. Regarding Communication, this paradigm questions its instrumental use and recognizes the interaction as an engaged Communicational process that someone else performs, in a community of meanings and not a neutral process of message transmission. The research is of qualitative character, focusing on the subject; denounces the control set up by dominant group the strategic place of the Communication used to hide the alternative representations.

The empirical studies are still rare, probably because of the questioning of the established order. Although the Brazilian researchers reference authors of this paradigm, at the time of the empirical analysis, overused and sometimes interpretative approach, functionalist. Most of the articles studied that shares with this perspective opts for literature review. We can point out that the paradigms studied coexist peacefully in a mosaic in the works analyzed, showing that there is a place for each one of them BOUZON, , and that the complementarities are evident.

The journals dossiers analysis indicates us no intention of authors in explaining their epistemological approach and that the characteristics of the functionalist perspective, interpretative and criticism are still mixed in papers, especially in Brazil. In this context, the Organizational Communication seems to accommodate an explanatory pluralism, which, in addition to oppositions, reveals itself as a source of innovation.

Table 3 shows the epistemological grounds found in articles. Questions appeared in the process. The second is that the qualitative assessment, the only one that allows us to appreciate the originality and innovation of a research, cannot be replaced and, last, encourage plurality of approaches, methods and objects for research to work an evolved design of science, which contributes to clarify the possible choices and to invent new ones.

This variety can demonstrate the lack of an editorial line, and can also show the subject of the moment or highlight the richness of plurality of our thematic field. In this study, the bibliography is not conceived as a simple stack of references, but rather as forming a full view of the state of research meanings. Accordingly, references expressed in articles leads us to know the contributions that sustain our scientific production and have an idea what academic works reflect. The research showed that there is a weak mobilization of French works, both in the field of Communication and expertise, Organizational Communication and the co-citation between the members of the field is quantitatively weak, representing on average These data show the timidity of French and Brazilian authors in the area of Organizational Communication to benefit from the production of colleagues in order to move, enlarge or question conceptual theoretical developed and analyzed by contributing directly to the constitution of our country.

The result of the research in that item leads us to question our academic practices in accordance with the principles established by Mumby and Stohl For them, we need researchers to promote our discipline, we support in a journal to share common principles and make the co-citations. Only in this way, we can have advances in the consolidation of epistemological Organizational Communication. The work done authorizes us to recognize the place of research in Organizational Communication in both countries, with a panoramic and structured look, allowing us to draw a current scenario and see the stage in which we find ourselves.

The epistemological paradigms do not appear dissected in the texts and, the artificial classification of fundamentals, little mobilized in the works studied, can mask the connivance of scientific practices and the fecundity of the researches developed. However, the three perspectives — interpretative, critical and functionalist — appear shared by researchers on both sides of the Atlantic.

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Another issue that arises in the process is that the discipline of Organizational Communication as a whole flows then polidoxic, i. In addition to this realization of cross-pollination, our study allowed to relativize the effects of the intensification of transnational circulation of knowledge and of the references about the Organizational Communication and Communication Sciences, which always remain loaded with local and national settings.

The research tells us, the coexistence with various practices of research presentations and studies.

While some articles are in a clearly prospects, others sail between several paradigmatic systems based on various principles and concepts, adopting an epistemological position built, as it is practiced in other disciplines such as Sociology and Management Sciences. The papers analyzed highlight a multitude of concepts, Communication and Organizational definitions, varying considerably from one author to another or from one search to another.

Through this brief note of science doing itself , the different approaches chosen seem to us to be more complementary than rivals, as they clarify organizational complex phenomena, sometimes unpublished, but always renewed. We also believe the power of work assessment in Organizational Communication, delegated by the Quantitative Assessment Scheme QAS , initially feared, does not result in standardization of scientific production; it does not weaken the capacities of innovation and renewal of the disciplinary field and contributes to the dynamics of scientific knowledge.

We faced difficulties connected to different cultural practices, the wide variety of works and the absence of explicit indications about the epistemological choices. On the other hand, in addition to the diversity and complementarity of approaches that are mutually prolific, our specialty seems to feed itself on border searches, and, paradoxically, very little work in our area. In addition to these findings, our analysis shows that in the French case, inflation of references mobilized in English, from a wide range of scientific journals, should be weighted by the fact that the authors cited are often the same.

They benefit, sometimes, of the fashion effect in research themes and the "Matthew effect", coined by Robert Merton 7 the co-citation among members of the discipline is quantitatively anemic both in France and in Brazil. From the drawn scenario and the framework of studies developed on Organizational Communication in both countries, we have the following questions so they can instigate further discussions and lead to other quests.

Would it be the lack of co-citation and the lack of referencing the Communication effect of elegance or collective modesty among researchers or, more fundamentally, the brand of a disciplinary production judged relatively poor by own members? If the bibliography is a support for later works, what will be the future of Communication Sciences if our thoughts are not taken up, discussed and deepened by the researchers of our specialty?

Can the format "paper" stimulate researchers to focus on tools and methods that adapt more easily its proposal, condemning the researcher to a field reduced to a synthetic objective, suppressing the nuances of the results, the questions, the doubts, the false leads and the mistakes that characterize the scientific conduct? Another question that the research brings us is that if the bibliometric evaluation of the impact and quality of academic production is based on citations of scientific papers and that the consideration of a limited number of papers in the only journal specialized Organizational Communication in each country does not allow a generalization of conclusions reached, we hope that this research can contribute to the questioning of the structuring logic of our disciplinary field.

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The epistemological stance of the researcher implements certain forms of theories". Shannon and Warren Weaver , it is simple linear model of communication, in which this is reduced to the transmission of a message.