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ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. Strikingly, the version which appeared first chronologically as a song on Ten New Songs is presented on the right side, giving the impression of being released later than the version on the left, which was in fact printed for the first time in Book of Longing. I will come back to this later see point 4. However, this raises two connected issues. First of all, the three translations are not entirely unconnected. Next to that, the two French translations from Book of Longing Vassal-Brierre and Allwright , despite their different nature, serve the same single goal: making the text understandable for a French-speaking audience.
This has not always been the case. In an interview from that period, he declares:. In music magazines of the same period, other translations were published although they were not meant to be sung. It is remarkable that the need to translate the lyrics was explicitly formulated several times: journalists asked translators to translate the lyrics and publish them see also Mus Today, translations of lyrics in reviews are rather rare. In one of his translations for Rock et Folk, Jacques Vassal 74 remarked:.
Traduire des chansons de Leonard Cohen, il y a bien longtemps que nous en avions envie. For the translations under study here, this distinction made by Vassal is not valid, given the fact that Allwright never used his translations of Ten New Songs for a musical adaptation into French.
In what follows, I will first compare the two poetry collections, and then include the translation of Allwright in my analysis in order to formulate several hypotheses that could explain, at least in part, the differences between these three versions. The mere comparison of the titles shows us that Garneau is much more explicit in his translation.
In this regard, Antoine Berman makes a distinction between two different forms of explicitation. The first one, negative, consists of the movement from polysemy to monosemy. The translation of the titles of the two poetry collections shows clearly that for Garneau, it is the second type of explicitation that is at play:. He emphasizes the existential condition of the artist, who feels completely and existentially alienated.
Longing has become a chronic condition. Unlike the French translators, he intervenes more in his translation, although different interpretations of the translated title remain possible.
Both for Book of Longing as for Book of Mercy his previous poetry book, published in , Cohen stressed in interviews that he omitted the article on purpose in order not to suggest any kind of definitive character of his work. In the rest of the paratextual information, Garneau is again much more explicit than his French colleagues. In the French edition, Cohen is rather vaguely introduced as a universal poet whose work transcends national boundaries.
In sum, the analysis of the paratext shows that, on the one hand, Garneau emphasizes the local roots of Cohen a detail omitted by the French translators , on the other hand he further pursues his existential condition as an alienated and wandering artist, by relating the adjectives in the title to the fundamental living condition of its author. A journalist once confronted Garneau and Vassal-Brierre with their translations.
Et Leonard, il est cochon! These observations also apply to the seven poems that previously appeared on Ten New Songs. The elevated language use in Vassal-Brierre is also reflected in their choice to retain more rhyme schemes than Garneau though none of the translators choose to retain rhyme systematically. This way, the Vassal-Brierre translation keeps some aspects of the original rhyme. The Frenchmen create a rhyme that is not there in the title, but indeed in the rest of the song. In what way does the French translation of Ten New Songs relate to the two previous translations?
On the other hand, his translation differs from that of Garneau because the choice of words is not always entirely explicit. The lexical choices are situated on three levels here, ranging from rather vulgar Garneau to rather noble Vassal-Brierre and, finally, a more intermediary variant Allwright.
These are the original lyrics:. Quite often, Garneau G and Allwright A opt for a similar translation choice, both on a grammatical and on a lexical level. Sometimes, when one passage is rendered in three different translations, there can be a three-fold difference in the use of elevated language: Vassal-Brierre use an elevated language, Garneau chooses a vulgar translation and Allwright opts for a more neutral word.
How can we explain these differences? Focusing on the difference of register, one can ask why the translation of Allwright, who lives and works in France, more closely resembles the Garneau version than the Vassal-Brierre version? A first explanation is banal: it seems that the Allwright-booklet was quickly arranged and designed for promotional purposes.
Here and there one can even notice an error or typo. There is no clear strategy behind these commercial translations: these supplements were published only twice — for The Future and for Ten New Songs A second explanation is more fundamental. This could also explain why some of the recent shows in France were subtitled: translations of the lyrics were projected on large screens, resembling what happens in opera subtitling or poetry readings — canonized genres par excellence — but rarely during pop concerts. While there are cases where ennoblement is an unconscious or even arbitrary phenomenon—Berman , for instance, sees it as characteristic of literary translation in general—the comparison of these translations and the source text reveals the significance of their respective contexts.
The Book of Longing translations are marked by a particular institutional context, which seems to justify the hypotheses mentioned above. Paris and from an artistic perspective poetry vs.
In other words, it was the author who granted the translator a creative space in which he could carry out his translation. Translation becomes an instrument mobilized in an identity process. In the thirty years between translating Macbeth and Book of Longing , much has changed. However, this explanation is incomplete.
The analysis of this complex corpus has shown that the different institutional contexts do have an influence on the translation strategies e. Although earlier fundamental translation research has already pointed out that translations are often more explicit and nobler than their source texts , the comparison of different translations has shown that several degrees of explicitation or ennoblement are possible. Although the extent to which the translator realizes these tendencies can vary, one should add that other factors may also neutralize or reinforce these general tendencies.
These factors can be internal motivated by a specific interpretation of the source text or external e. In this regard, the Garneau-translation is the most remarkable one. Vassal promoted the reception of Cohen in France, both through many contributions in music magazines such as Rock et Folk and through translations in books and magazines.
In , he travelled to London because he aspired to a theatrical career. There, he also met his wife, who was French, and after a while they moved to France, where Allwright practised a number of jobs inside and outside the artistic sector , before he started his own singing career.
Coetzee and Robinson by Muriel Spark APA 6th ed. Here and there one can even notice an error or typo. Errances: Roman Romanichels French Edition. I like very much these lines of Jorge Luis Borges : 'Why do you write? This item: Errances: Recueil French Edition.
In , at the age of 39, he released his first album Le Trimardeur. This way, he could gain the necessary visibility and credibility as a non-native French artist. His later translations of Cohen e. Just as Casanova explains that translation can play a consecrating role on a macro-level between national cultures , the same dynamics is here at work on an individual level: the prestige of the translated author reflects on the translator.
For this article, I have limited the corpus to the titles in which there was a reference to a French translation. Although in the s Cohen himself would make a French to English! Cohen 5, in Burger Adria, Marco.
Buy a cheap copy of Errances (Versions Françaises) (French book by Lu Xun. Free shipping over $ every six months. Add to Wish List · See 1 Edition. [PDF] Errances (Versions Françaises) (French Edition) by Xun Lu, Sebastian Veg . Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and.
Accessed 21 Sept. Allwright, Graeme. Graeme Allwright chante Leonard Cohen , Mercury, Paroles et Musique , 33, , p.