Both the youth leaders and the traditional heads mentioned tree planting and forestation, shifting cultivations and bush fallowing as the modern conservation methods practiced. Though they explained that even though this practices look modern, their forefathers for long have adopted such conservation practices, especially selective planting of economic trees along farm roads and streams.
Do you think that the decline in the number of indigenous knowledge holders can result to the loss of indigenous knowledge? Virtually all the participants agreed that the decline in the number of indigenous holders can result to the loss of indigenous knowledge. The reason they gave stems from the fact that information on indigenous knowledge are normally transferred from one person to the other, especially from the oldest person in the community. They were all aware that most of the indigenous knowledge are not written down, but is handed over from one person to another.
A revelation given by a women leader Mrs. The youth leader in participation did not object to the revelation made from the women. Though, they believed that some of the youths still in possess the knowledge in indigenous knowledge. My father showed me all the leaves I need for bone setting and though a youth I have been successful. How can the knowledge on indigenous knowledge be strengthened in Umuahia south LGA?
All the participants believed that a wider community education on the importance of indigenous knowledge can strengthen its sustainability in Umuahia south LGA. They also solicited for the documentation of the various indigenous knowledge. What is your opinion on youth participation in environmental conservations in Umuahia south LGA?
The youths mentioned the maintenance of farm roads, the cleaning and maintenance of streams and enforcing penalties and fines on defaulters as one of their contributions in participating in environmental conservations. For the traditional heads, their opinion on youth participation in environmental conservations stems on the involvement and indoctrination of the youth on community cultures and practices especially those that are related on environmental conservations.
Analysis of Assumptions The research assumptions were analyzed here using the simple percentages. Assumption 1:Sustainable use of natural resources will be determined by the level of indigenous conservation methods in Umuahia South LGA. Assumption 2: Indigenous knowledge systems will positively impact on modern environmental conservation methods in Umuahia South LGA. Biodiversity monitoring based on local observations, taboos and regulations, informal sanctions, customary institutions defining decision making, and rituals and ceremonies enforcing behavior that supports conservation goals were identified as key processes sustaining natural resource management.
They are found on farmlands and are also scattered in the forested areas and swamps.
The following plants were chosen based on their economic value and importance. Plants Ecology Uses Pollination conservatio Cultural agents n attachment Oil palm Found in Fruits man, periodic The yellow tender tree elaeisgumi forest and processed into animals pruning of leave has strong nensis Nkwu farmlands Cooking oil, especially leaves cultural link with timber and for squirrels, the soci-cultural boundary birds etc.
Native Kola Mostly The fruit used man, Seeds are Has a high cultural cola planted at as Offering to animals like stored in dry attachment, acuminate Oji homes and gods, as gift squirrels, storage bins, mostly seen as the occasionally during bats etc. Native Mostly fruits eaten Man, Removal of has cultural pear dacryodis planted at especially with animals shady plants attachments as it edulis Ube homes maize, sold especially usually announce commercially birds, the arrival of the squirrels. It also serves as a meeting place for socio- cultural activities like the Ekpe and Okonko.
Disputes are also settled here. It holds that whoever commits an offence that is deemed sacrilege to the land is stung by bees residing on the trees. This long held traditions and belief makes it necessary the trees are well protected. Presently it is a tourist site. It is also on its regeneration strength that most traditional elders use it as place of shrines and objects of shrine. It is found in most community shrines.
It is not a good tree for fire wood, as it emits lots of smokes when used as fire wood. This property makes it in abundance in most communities. The bees as the communities belief will sting any person who has ill feelings for another and persons in the community who does and commit crimes that are sacrilegious to the land. The long held beliefs have made it possible that this tree has survived for a long time and is still standing. This formed the main aim of the study. Other specific objectives were to Identify and document the various indigenous Local knowledge employed by the local people in environmental Conservation in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State.
Identify and examine those natural resources that are protected based on native wisdom and traditions in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State, examine those natural resources that are endangered in Umuahia South LGA and identify those socio-cultural activities that are identified with the natural resources in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State. Similarly the following research questions were raised to proffer solution to the research questions raised; What are those indigenous knowledge methods employed by the local people in environmental Conservation in Umuahia South Local Government Area of AbiaState?
And what are those socio-cultural activities that are identified with the natural resources in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State? Literature from other sources that were related to the research were reviewed to ascertain their relevance in the study. The adopted theory for the study was the Cultural Ecology Theory, the reason is given that it gives an insight on how environmental factors influence humans and how human activities affect the biosphere and the earth itself.
It was therefore very relevant in as much that it focuses on how cultural beliefs and practices help human populations adapt to their environment and live within the means of their ecosystem. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design; a form of survey research designed to employ random probability samples that allow for the employment of statistical inferences to a broader population. Data for the study were arrived at using both the primary questionnaire, FGDs and secondary literature reviews sources. Data were analyzed using the simple percentage.
It is a Christian dominated area and respondents are predominantly farmers and traders and are engaged in business. Bush fallowing and the use of belief systems and restrictions using taboos was the adopted indigenous methods and practices in environmental conservations in the study area.
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Respondents strongly agreed that modern environmental conservation agencies should adopt and integrate indigenous knowledge for effective environmental conservations in Umuahia south LGA. Majority of the respondents strongly agreed on the relevance of indigenous knowledge in environmental conservations.
Respondents identified trees of various species, sacred groves and streams as the major natural resources that are protected based on native wisdom and tradition in Umuahia south LGA. The study has also shown that virtually all the mentioned natural resources in Umuahia south LGA are identified with the socio-cultural activities in Umuahia south LGA.
The attachment of the Ekpe and Okonko socio-cultural organization to the Leopard, the setting of shrines and other cultural rites in groves and the use of kolanut, palmwine from palm tree for traditional rites and burials and also the importance attached to the Iroko tree as king of all tree and its usage for shrines, are some of the natural resources identified and attached with the socio- cultural activities in Umuahia south LGA.
Species of trees with much economic importance and value, are conserved using indigenous knowledge when compared to species with limited economic value. The Focus Group Discussion FGDs organized showed that participants are in tune with the modern environmental conservation methods. Just as they all agreed that the decline in the number of indigenous knowledge holders can result to loss of indigenous knowledge in Umuahia south LGA. Participants also believed that the documentation and transmission of indigenous knowledge is one of the means and methods that will strengthen the knowledge on indigenous knowledge in Umuahia south LGA.
Indigenous knowledge module: There should be an integration of indigenous knowledge module in academic curriculum in both the primary, secondary and tertiary educational system in Nigeria. Environmental policy Trust: There should be a policy trust restricting the exploitation of indigenous natural resources, given that the over-exploitation and extinction of indigenous nature resources impacts on the indigenous knowledge and culture of the people.
Indigenous knowledge database: A system of documentation and cataloguing of indigenous knowledge of the people to forestall its loss and extinct is very important. Establishment of Indigenous conservation areas: A government regulation and policy establishing conservation areas that will be managed by the indigenous people. And access to such conservation areas should be for research purposes. The study has contributed towards the understanding of the applicability of Indigenous knowledge in environmental conservations in Umuahia South LGA.
The study has also contributed towards the understanding that indigenous people attach more conservation values and priority to natural resources with special economic values, than those with less economic values. Adeyemi, O. Environmental Informatics Archives.
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Stabilizing land use and forest cultivation. Journal of Agricultural science. Vol 34 no 4. World Bank Development and the environment. World development report. New York: oxford press. D Degree in Sociology of Development. Have information to share? We don't have any information on the origins of the Elemos name. We don't have any alternate spellings or pronunciation information on the Elemos name. These are the earliest records we have of the Elemos family.
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He is the founder of a math and sciences academy in South Africa.