http://www.cantinesanpancrazio.it/components/tykewozi/1147-localizzare-cellulari.php Differences in attitudes and health education about waterpipe smoking across smoker status were evaluated using the t-test for independent samples. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for risk factors associated with waterpipe smoking. Characteristics of the participants, including speciality and training, are detailed in Table 1.
Compared with waterpipe smokers, a greater frequency of waterpipe non-smokers agreed that waterpipe sales and advertising should be banned; waterpipes should be banned in restaurants, coffee shops, and all enclosed public places; physicians should have specific training about techniques of cessation of waterpipe smoking; and physicians are role models who should advise and give information to patients about quitting waterpipe smoking Table 2. Our study provided insight about the prevalence and attitudes in regard to waterpipe smoking in Saudi Arabian physicians from 4 hospitals and different specialties in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Predictors of waterpipe smoking in our study were younger age, male sex and surgical specialty. Most of our participants started waterpipe smoking at high school or medical school age. The reported prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults in Saudi Arabia ranges from Cigarette smoking among physicians and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia has been studied previously. More recently, in southwestern Saudi Arabia The introduction of flavoured tobacco, the thriving coffee shop culture and the lack of regulations have been cited as the main factors contributing for the spread of waterpipe smoking globally There are several potential explanations for the high prevalence, including the high stress of a medical career and the misconception that waterpipe smoking relieves stress.
Moreover, there is a belief that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than cigarette smoking 16,17 ; other factors include curiosity and social trends as main reasons for waterpipe smoking However, the low exposure to education related to waterpipe hazards and cessation in medical school or postgraduate training is probably the main contributing factor for the high frequency of waterpipe smoking among physicians. In our study, most physicians started waterpipe smoking at age under 24 years, and this is consistent with previous findings that most waterpipe smokers start smoking in adolescence Waterpipe smoking is more prevalent in junior physicians interns and residents because these physicians are under severe stress and have very busy schedules.
Our study showed a significantly higher prevalence of waterpipe smoking among men than women; this may be true, however it may be a result of underreporting by women because there is a social stigma associated with waterpipe smoking in women. Limitations of the present study included the cross-sectional design, which may have introduced bias from self-reporting. In addition, the study was limited to only one form of tobacco smoking.
Nevertheless, the study had certain strengths: it was a multicentre study involving all levels of physicians with varying expertise and specialties. There is a need to implement strategies to reduce waterpipe smoking among physicians, which should have the additional benefit of reducing waterpipe smoking in the general population.
These strategies could include classes, training and educational materials about the health risks and cessation in medical schools and residency training programmes.
In conclusion, waterpipe smoking in Saudi Arabian physicians has high prevalence, especially in men, junior physicians, surgeons and physicians who did not receive formal education about waterpipe smoking in their training. This may result in a negative image of physicians because patients regard their physician as a model for health education and disease prevention. Subscribe via RSS. Volume 25, number 4, April WHO Bulletin. Pan American Journal of Public Health.
Main Search Contact. YouTube Rss feeds Twitter Facebook. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. Abstract Background: Tobacco smoking kills more than 5 million people annually and it is the most important cause of preventable death. Introduction Tobacco smoking in all forms kills more than 5 million people per year and it is the most important cause of preventable death 1. Methods Sample size Sample size was calculated using the Raosoft sample size calculator www. Survey We used a specific structured questionnaire modified from the Global Health Professional Survey, an international standardized questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Canadian Public Health Association to collect information on tobacco use and cessation counselling among health professional students about smoking prevalence, characteristics including waterpipe smoking , attitudes, perception, and exposure to smoking cessation training 5.
Discussion Our study provided insight about the prevalence and attitudes in regard to waterpipe smoking in Saudi Arabian physicians from 4 hospitals and different specialties in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. References Tobacco Free Initiative. Why tobacco is a public health priority. TobReg — advisory note, waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. Geneva: World Health Organization; Al-Turki YA. Smoking habits among medical students in Central Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Med J. Water pipe shisha smoking among male students of medical colleges in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. Predictors of waterpipe smoking among secondary school adolescents in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Int J Behav Med. Smoking in Saudi Arabia. Tobacco use among health care workersin southwestern Saudi Arabia.
Biomed Res Int. Knowledge, attitudes and prevalence of tobacco use among physicians and dentists in Oman. Overall, the weight gain and milk production data suggest that the effect on lactation of stressing the animals during experimental handling was similar to the method of tobacco exposure adopted, and that the observed effect of the cigarettes on milk extraction may be overcome by litters in the intervals between exposures.
For the model adopted, lactation was sensitive to animal stress, in contrast with gestation, which was only sensitive to the effects of exposure to cigarettes. In this study, exposure to cigarette smoke reduced weight and length at birth. This effect was independent and attributable to tobacco. During lactation the female rats exposed to tobacco smoke produced smaller volumes of milk, their pups captured less milk and exhibited slower weight gain and less postnatal linear growth in relation to the control group.
During lactation, handling and exposure to compressed air prejudiced the weight gain of offspring. Milk extraction was reduced by handling and, to a greater extent, by exposure to cigarette smoke, but, over the lactation period, the effect of cigarette smoke in reducing milk production was no different from that of handling. J Pediatr Rio J. Rev Chil Pediatr. Smoking during pregnancy and lactation and its effects on breast-milk volume.
Am J Clin Nutr. Maternal smoking and the risk of early weaning: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. Association between smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding at about 2 weeks of age. J Hum Lact. Weight gain during the first year of life in relation to maternal smoking and breast feeding in Norway.
J Epidemiol Community Health. Environmental tobacco smoke and breastfeeding duration. Am J Epidemiol. Secular trends in breastfeeding and parental smoking. Acta Paediatr. Association of low birth weight with passive smoke exposure in pregnancy. The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect.
The toxicology of environmental tobacco smoke. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.
Amir LH. Maternal smoking and reduced duration of breastfeeding: a review of possible mechanisms. Early Hum Dev. Mello PRB. J Pneumol. Pulmao RJ. Morag M. Estimation of milk yield in the rat. Lab Anim. Measurement of milk yield in the lactating rat from pup weight and weight gain. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Williams CM, Kanagasabai T. Maternal adipose tissue response to nicotine administration in the pregnant rat: effects on fetal body fat and cellularity.
Br J Nutr. Rev Nutr. Effect of nicotine on the development of fetal and suckling rats.
These biomarkers can range from isolated changes with or without effects on function to events that clearly lead to illness or are symptoms of illness e. Related Materials. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects on endothelial blood vessels [ 24 , 25 ]. The researchers concluded that the intensity of smoking and the mouth levels of smoke constituents significantly affect the concentrations of urinary biomarkers of exposure and should be taken into account in evaluating human exposure to toxic substances in cigarette smoke. Conflict of interest The authors received no support from any organization for the submitted chapter, no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted chapter, and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted chapter. The study sample was randomly chosen, but it was concentrating on 20 to 30 years old because many university students accepted the invitation and performed the scan Figure 2.
Biol Neonate. Experimental studies on nicotine absorption in rats during pregnancy. Effect of subcutaneous injection of small chronic doses upon mother, fetus, and neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Maternal smoking during lactation: relation to growth during the first year of life in a Dutch birth cohort.
Eskenazi B, Bergmann JJ. Passive and active maternal smoking during pregnancy, as measured by serum cotinine, and postnatal smoke exposure. Effects on physical growth at age 5 years. Lau C, Henning SJ. Regulation of milk ingestion in the infant rat. Physiol Behav. Effect of dietary protein and food restriction on milk production and composition, maternal tissues and enzymes in lactating rats.
King Volume Records. Limited Edition "COKE SMOKE" Color Vinyl main photo. DEATHCHANT – Limited Edition "COKE SMOKE" Color Vinyl DEATHCHANT. Despite progress in reducing the proportion of adults who smoke cigarettes, D. Babb, MPH1; Brian A. King, PhD1; Linda J. Neff, PhD1 (View author affiliations) .. wamadawipu.cf
J Nutr. Lau C. Effects of various stressors on milk release in the rat. The role of mammary gland innervation in the control of the motor apparatus of the mammary gland: a review. Dairy Sci Abstr. Milk ejection and its control. The physiology of reproduction. New York: Raven; Neville MC. Anatomy and physiology of lactation.
Ped Clin North Am. Effects of stress on lactation. Manuscript received Sep 14 , accepted for publication Feb 26 All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Introduction Smoking can affect several phases of human reproduction, including lactation. Methods This study employed an experimental rat model of exposure to tobacco smoke, analyzing several parameters, 13 including linear growth and weight gain of pups and dams' milk production.
Results Table 1 contains the weights of the rat pups from birth up until the 15th day of life. Discussion Assessment of the weight gain and linear growth of newborn rats demonstrated that the difference in weight between the offspring of rats exposed to cigarette smoke and controls remained even when birth weight was subtracted from total weight gain by means of analysis of accumulated weight gain.
References 1. Carlos Gomes, cj.