Film Industry":. Add to Cart. In Exception Taken , Jonathan Buchsbaum examines the movements that have emerged in opposition to the homogenizing force of Hollywood in global filmmaking. While European cinema was entering a steady decline in the s, France sought to strengthen support for its film industry under the new Mitterrand government.
Over the following decades, the country lobbied partners in the European Economic Community to design strategies to protect the audiovisual industries and to resist cultural free-trade pressures in international trade agreements.
These struggles to preserve the autonomy of national artistic prerogatives emboldened many countries to question the benefits of accelerated globalization. Led by the energetic minister of culture Jack Lang, France initiated a series of measures to support all sectors of the film industry. Lang introduced laws mandating that state and private television invest in the film industry, effectively replacing the revenue lost from a shrinking theatrical audience for French films.
With the formation of the European Union in , Europe passed a new treaty Maastricht that extended its legal purview to culture for the first time, setting up the dramatic confrontation over the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs GATT in Pushed by France, the EU fought the United States over the idea that countries should preserve their right to regulate cultural activity as they saw fit. As France pursued these efforts to protect cultural diversity beyond its borders, it also articulated "a certain idea of cinema" that did not simply defend a narrow vision of national cinema.
France promoted both commercial cinema and art cinema, disproving announcements of the death of cinema. Two years later, Ponce de Leon died in a disastrous attempt to build a settlement in Florida, and Spain withdrew from further serious efforts to establish a permanent presence there for another half-century. The first Spanish town in what is now the United States was not in Florida, but somewhere between 30 degrees and 34 degrees North. In , Ayllon had ordered a slaving expedition, and in , set out himself with approximately Spanish colonists--including women, children, and three Dominican friars--and a number of African slaves.
After a false start, Ayllon built the town of San Miguel de Guadalupe. His venture was doomed from the outset.
The principals of the colony quarreled, Indians attacked, slaves rebelled, and Ayllon died. Only survivors returned to Hispaniola.
Later, in a slightly smaller group under Narvaez plundered and skirmished along the Gulf coast from Yampa Bay to Texas, where it disintegrated. Cabeza de Vaca and three other members finally reached Mexico in From to de Soto and, after his death, Moscoso led an ever-shrinking party on a circuitous route through the southeastern and southcentral United States. From to Coronado explored the Southwest.
In all cases, these Spanish explorers antagonized the Indians and failed to entice settlers to the higher latitudes. The parts of North America neglected by Spain were attractive on that account to her ancient enemy--France. Although the Treaty of Tordesillas had given France no share of the New World, the French crown ignored the arrangement.
Francis I underwrote Verrazzano's exploratory voyage and the more ambitious enterprises of Cartier and Roberval on the St. Lawrence Even though war with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire impeded French expansion in the s and s, and the death of Henry II in led to civil and religious strife that nearly tore the country apart, France was the largest and most populous kingdom in western Europe and still a formidable adversary.
Expecting a French challenge in North America, Spain sent a large contingent to secure a settlement site on the Gulf and an overland route thence to the coast of Georgia or South Carolina. In , Angel de Villafane followed the Atlantic coast north past Cape Fear, looking for suitable sites and any foreigners making unauthorized use of them. Villafane dismissed the area as worthless. Charlesfort lasted only a few months, but this French incursion and well-founded rumors about a second, to the south, caused King Philip II of Spain to send Pedro Menendez de Aviles to establish a settlement in Florida, and to expel any Frenchmen in the area.
Menendez arrived in August and wasted no time laying out the first St. Johns River. In due course he founded ten outposts in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina ; ordered exploration of the North Carolina and Virginia coasts ; and personally avenged the Jesuits' murder by Indians. Menendez, a strong supporter of colonization, was nearly alone in his enthusiasm for the region. His death in resulted in a decline of Spanish colonies in the area.
Through Philip II continued to be interested until his death in , the lack of an on-site manager with the enthusiasm and ability of Menendez made it easier for another country ignored at Tordesillas to reenter the struggle for empire in the New World. The prodigious wealth flowing into Spain from its colonies and crown efforts to monopolize colonial trade prompted international smuggling and piracy.
As a seafaring nation with few continental distractions and only one border to defend, England was a natural leader in both enterprises. Shortly after her accession to the English throne in , Queen Elizabeth disestablished Roman Catholicism once and for all.
She further widened the breech with Catholic Spain by rejecting Philip's proposals of marriage, and by overlooking her subjects unofficial trade with Spanish colonies and attacks on Spanish shipping. John Hawkins' first voyage to the Caribbean with African slaves had been so profitable that the queen herself invested in the second and third. Shelve Atlantis A Shrouded World 2. Word of Alpha's recovery spreads throughout the region.
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