Beginning realism (Beginnings)

Literary realism
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Summary of Realism

American literature -- History and criticism. United States -- Civilization. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.

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Philosophy, American. American literature. Politics and government United States. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? Vernon Louis Parrington.

Print book : English View all editions and formats. United States -- Politics and government. View all subjects. User tags User lists Similar Items. Introduction: The great revolution -- Book I: Changing America -- Part I: The gilded age -- The American scene -- The culture of the seventies: with the decay of aristocratic controls, a loss of unity.

Three strands: aristocratic, romantic, frontier -- Changing theory: an agricultural people changing to an urbanized people. The railways hasten economic development -- The beginnings of criticism: the pessimists skeptical of democracy, the optimists calling for reform of the spoils system. No competent critics of industrialism -- Part II: New patterns of thought -- Disintegration and reintegration: two forces creating a new ideology, science and the machine.

Beginnings

The decay of the older theological, political mind, and the emergence of an urban mind -- The skepticism of the house of Adams: the flower of the sturdy New England character. They fail to adjust to the Gilded Age -- Victorian realism: in the eighties realism begins to excite interest and the movement gets under way, though the American taste is still romantic. The psychology of the dispersion marking America. Book Two: The old and the new: Storm clouds -- Part I: The middle border rises -- The plight of the farmer -- The democracy of the age of innocence -- Literature and the middle border -- Part II: Proletarian hopes -- [Plutocracy and the workingman: disruption of industry -- strikes and lockouts in the Gilded Age.

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Bitterness of conflict. The discovery of the injunction] -- [The rise of the left] -- The quest of Utopia -- [The darkening skies of letters: the clouds gathering on the "gay" horizon of American optimism. Changes in the temper of scientific thought point to determinism. A gloomier realism on the way, coming first from the West] -- Part III: The hesitant South -- [Two worlds: the aristocratic clinging to the romance of the past; the plebeian agrarian joining with the middle borner in its protest against plutocracy. Tom A.

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The beginnings of industrials that proposed to exploit the cotton and iron of the South] -- [The romance of the past: Thomas Nelson Page and the plantation tradition; Joel Chandler Harris and the romance of the negro; Mary Murfree and the romance of the mountaineer; George Washington Cable and the romance of the creole] -- [Sidney Lanier -- the poet of the South] -- [Henry W.

Since three attitudes towards democracy: 1 It has been achieved but the machine needs closer attention -- civil service reform; 2 It has not been achieved because of the Constitution, but it must be achieved through remodeling political machinery; 3 No intelligent person desires it to be achieved. The movement of liberalism a great stock-taking venture] -- [Liberalism and the journalists: the muckraking movement] -- [Liberalism and politics: the movement of progressivism] -- Part II: Liberalism and letters -- [Liberalism and the intellectuals: the movement becomes critical] -- [Liberalism and fiction: a shift from liberalism to radicalism -- from politics to economics] -- [Liberalism and realism] -- Part III: Reaction -- [The war and liberalism: the reaction developed a many-sided attack on the liberalisms of the preceding period.

Though never a coherent group, Realism is recognized as the first modern movement in art, which rejected traditional forms of art, literature, and social organization as outmoded in the wake of the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. Beginning in France in the s, Realism revolutionized painting, expanding conceptions of what constituted art.

Working in a chaotic era marked by revolution and widespread social change, Realist painters replaced the idealistic images and literary conceits of traditional art with real-life events, giving the margins of society similar weight to grand history paintings and allegories. Their choice to bring everyday life into their canvases was an early manifestation of the avant-garde desire to merge art and life, and their rejection of pictorial techniques, like perspective, prefigured the many 20 th -century definitions and redefinitions of modernism.

Gustave Courbet said he painted his hometown's "mayor, who weighs , the parish priest, the justice of the peace, the cross bearer, the notary Marlet, the assistant mayor, my friends, my father, the choirboys, the grave digger, two old revolutionaries" to depict the funeral of his great-uncle in his Burial at Ornans - thus painting his reality.

When exhibited the painting created such an uproar and launched Realism, that the artist said later, " Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism.

BEGINNINGS OF IMPRESSIONISM

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The Art Story. Movements, Styles, and Tendencies Realism. Started: s Ended: s. His paintings often contained an emotional bleakness, and were praised for their precision and use of light. Along with Delacroix, Courbet was a key influence on the Impressionists. More Top Artists. He was the most famous and influential Russian painter of the 19th century, bringing Russian art to the forefront of European culture.

Realism is broadly considered the beginning of modern art. Literally, this is due to its conviction that everyday life and the modern world were suitable subjects for art. Philosophically, Realism embraced the progressive aims of modernism, seeking new truths through the reexamination and overturning of traditional systems of values and beliefs. Realism concerned itself with how life was structured socially, economically, politically, and culturally in the mid th century. This led to unflinching, sometimes "ugly" portrayals of life's unpleasant moments and the use of dark, earthy palettes that confronted high art's ultimate ideals of beauty.

Realism was the first explicitly anti-institutional, nonconformist art movement.

Realist painters took aim at the social mores and values of the bourgeoisie and monarchy upon who patronized the art market. Though they continued submitting works to the Salons of the official Academy of Art , they were not above mounting independent exhibitions to defiantly show their work.