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Dragon world book 1race the sunset the. Ge of tklimakan uyghur urbicultureat center lin. Spaceport mercy book 3greetings earthli. And whilst urban audiences identified with that tension, or at least, acknowledged it as a defining feature of their global positioning, they found in the traditionalist music of their local composers a satisfactory answer to the question of collective identity. Concert-goers, like composers, would also negotiate between the discourse of originality and the discourse of contemporaneity in ways that would be most socially beneficial to their own tight-knit, cosmopolitan social circles.
One cannot forget the practical benefits of composing traditionalist music during late teens and twenties. Composers who chose the nativist, traditionalist, or nationalist route in Argentina at points during the s, the late s, early s, and s, did so because they saw an opportunity to communicate.
They saw in their fellow poets, composers, and performers a shared and expanding space for telling stories that resonated with listeners hungry the refreshing of national symbols. Its first president, Aguirre presided over the Wagner Society from its inception in The number of subscribers, now exceeding two thousand, forms a solid based of listeners, who have seen all of the famous artists of domestic and foreign extraction pass through their concert halls.
This same organization has instituted annual composition prizes. The well-known Wagner, Breyer, and School Song awards not only serve as an incentive; they are a great honor for our composers. Weiss 29 Aguirre recognized the challenges of undertaking to write music in the increasingly- professionalized but tight-knit sphere of art music composition. As was the common lot of musicians, he taught music lessons to provide for himself and his family see Illustration 7.
In , he started his own music school, which generated the income necessary to pay for the printing of his own music. These economic realities, combined with the challenges of raising a family, probably explain the slow-down in compositional and performing activities between and His comments in appear to reflect his own personal experience. The difficulties that our musicians face are many and diverse. Young composers are rarely able to print their music.
Performers rehearse most of these works with manuscript scores. And after it is performed once or twice for a small audience, it goes back into the drawer where it came from. Exorbitant ticket prices make it difficult, if not impossible, for many to attend symphonic performances. Thus, substantial amounts of important chamber music— quartets, trios, sonatas, many vocal and instrumental works—produced by our fellow citizens are known only by a small circle of supporters and buried almost immediately following their creation.
Composers were not simply responding to ideological debates of Nationhood; they were taking advantage of a growing demand by the constituents of public and private institutions for Argentine musical products. Weiss 30 suggests that composers may have been, at times, less committed to the ideas of traditionalism than they were strategic about when and how to make music that would promote their own delicate careers.
In many ways the cultural strategies of the late teens and twenties were no different than earlier attempts of the nineteenth-century, just more explicit. Weiss 31 The discourse of originality upon which the creation of traditionalist art music depended would outlive variant reincarnations of political nationalism.
Not unlike the urbanite preference for rural real estate ventures, cultural production based on rural imaginaries would pay dividends for generations to come. They were creating cultural history that they knew would stick. Composers like Aguirre took advantage of these opportunities, whenever they came, finding the art song to be a relatively simple vehicle by which to get in the game. During the forties, when the communicative power of music that signified difference began fading away, many Argentine composers would turn to other strategies that offered more immediate opportunities for reaching a wider, more global audience.
The pendulum would, thus, 42 I have catalogued over Argentine art songs and can estimate with some certainty that there were between 4, and 8, art songs composed in Argentina between and Maya Hoover. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , Weiss 32 swing the other way and composers would find it preferable to base their output less on the discourse of originality and more on the discourse of contemporaneity.
Weiss 33 CHAPTER 2 Grieving, lonely, in love: exploring the national sentir Prior to , Argentine audiences on the whole did not regard traditionalist music as equal in value to Euro-centric musical production. Though Williams had made a valiant effort to establish a national school of composition, audiences were not always convinced that local composers could improve upon the chamber, symphonic, and operatic music coming to them from Spain, Italy, Germany, France, or Britain.
Many listeners did not even care to be convinced. The trading of beef for European imports, including its latest fads, fashions and haute culture had been an acceptable arrangement for many elite citizens since Faced with the increasing economic and social challenges beginning in , however, the same consumers looked with increasing interest on the fellow musicians and poets engaged in the traditionalist project.
Alfonso Chacon, a Costa Rican writer, puts it this way: By the time the First World War was over, Latin American intellectual life had been cast into a deep struggle to find its own voice. Seeing the collapse of "civilized" Europe - beacon of human progress and achievement - which had not hesitated in throwing itself to a wild carnage was a deep shock for many in the New World, particularly to those who had always preached the need for Latin America to follow Europe's example.
Even though most of the continent was independent by , a strong European influence kept dictating not only the fashion and economic models of the Latin American countries, but acted as kind of an ideal civilization, which prompted many intellectuals to emulate the European models of education and politics, while despising their own land which was seen as the epitome of savagery and barbarism.
Elite 43 Chacon R. Before his work, composers that attempted to compose nativist music did so on the basis of musical symbols and gestures of Otherness only usually borrowed and transferred wholesale, in the spirit of transcription, to the grand staff. Furthermore, most of the folklore references came from the neighboring province of La Pampa. Aguirre brought a new level of sophistication to this practice by reimagining Romantic emotional fields in local terms. This strategy of geographic distancing led to distances of a temporal, dramatic, or symbolic nature.
The purpose of this chapter is to offer brief sketches of the Romantic emotional touch points Aguirre went about reframing in ten of his songs. I comment on his choice of poetry, musical dramatization, use of folk rhythms, and harmonic devices. The bookend dates for the ten songs in this chapter begin with "Vidalita, op. Emilio Casares, et. See also, Allison L. Weiss 36 and his death in August of Luna blanca, El soldadito, op. El muchacho y aldea, op. La rose pintado vio… La alforja no. Rosas orientales, La lune 1 op.
Most of his songs were published without dates on the covers. Chronological listing of ten songs by Aguirre with estimated composition and publication dates. My selection for the catalog that follows was based on three criteria. First, I wanted to study songs with texts in Spanish. Finally, I selected songs that would help me to identify the kinds of emotional themes appropriated by Aguirre for the construction of a national sentir.
Weiss 40 - M 4. Canto y Plano Illustration 9. Five song cover pages and a title page belonging to the series Canciones argentinas. His songs of the same period were largely based on texts by French poets i. Between and , Aguirre published Aires ciollos, Aires populares argentinos, and one volume of Aires nacionales argentinas Op. More research needs to be done, but our best guess at this point is that he spent his time involved in such activities as attending concerts, raising a family, socializing, reading, teaching piano, working as secretary for the Conservatory of Buenos Aires run by Alberto Williams , and helping to found the Wagner Society.
Weiss 42 With the publication of a second volume of Aires nacionales argentinas Op. This piece included a vocal line but may or may not have been sung in all performances, since the accompaniment itself would have sufficed as a solo piano work. Weiss 43 AI. MITRe: S Weiss Argentl"a de ilIli. Weiss 45 Illustration Weiss 47 II. An increased interest in musical expressions of traditionalist-oriented criollismo, a heightened regard for Aguirre as musical figure, and his newly-assumed presidency of the Wagner Society all must have contributed to the organizing of what appears to be his first lecture-concert on August 28, Aguirre may have performed a number of his piano pieces that evening for the first time, since many of them had not yet been published.
Weiss 48 the debut year of Dos canciones de cuna, op. Aguirre would have been between 47 and 53 years of age during that period. Some believe that the dance name huella may have referred to the wagon wheel ruts left by gaucho wagons in the Argentine pampa plains, prairies. The folklore dance of the same name is thought to have originated sometime during the s, reaching the attention of circus musicians and other observers by He was very likely also familiar with art music adaptations for the piano and guitar published by Alberto Williams and others.
What Aguirre does with the solo piano pieces evoking an indianist atmosphere by utilizing the pentatonic scale commonly associated with the quena indigenous flute , he accomplishes in a different way with Op. Illustration 13 provides another evidence of this bouncing between genres.
Illustration Weiss 52 The purpose of the brief descriptions that follow is to explore how Aguirre what some of his trademark compositional techniques were and how we was able to connect those techniques to ideas of traditionalism, sometimes referred to as criollismo.
These folk music categories spoke volumes to the Argentine concert-goers who, beginning around , increasingly subscribed to what I term a discourse of originality. Defining the national sentir To speak of a national sentir is the best way I can think of to invoke a meaning- making process without falling completely into the territory of sentimentality and music.
While sentimentality, as it is portrayed in nineteenth century literature and music of Buenos Aires, did influence the development of the Argentine art song to some degree, this is not what I am referring to when I use the term sentir. To sentir quite simply is to sense, to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste, to be aware, or to be conscious of something.
Figures 4 and 5 summarize each of the ten songs I consider here, categorized by emotional theme, as well as their title, opus number, theme, musical topic, and poetic vantage point. These themes might be loosely grouped into five categories: 1. These were not just emotional states that individual listeners might relate to based on their individual life experiences.
By this point in time, allusions to the pampa, or to its symbolic resident, the gaucho, even folk dance rhythms and genres—functioned more like recognizable signposts that pointed to the real heart of the matter: emotional experiences that audiences could regard as representing a broad national experience. Weiss 56 This conception of emotion and its role in nation-making art possesses decidedly Romantic origins.
The ability to feel defines the human and creates the meaningfulness in individual and social life. Art, like religion, should unite individual members of a society in solidarity and likeness and in opposition to perceived or impending threats. To invoke a shared emotional field through poetry and music, then, was to create a sense of national togetherness, a unity that was hoped could weather the storms of life, political, economic, or otherwise. Jeff Browitt and Brian Nelson, Weiss 58 IV. Numbered lines will help readers construct the original text, if necessary. An attempt has been made to translate the original song titles and texts into English.
Since this thesis utilizes the framework of translation theories to describe musico-textual communication, I was more than a bit self-conscious as I did so. Those who do speak Spanish will hopefully forgive any glaring deficiencies and read deeper into the original. Weiss 59 1. Weiss 60 Vuelve, oh vida, y trae para la flor 13 Return, my love, and bring water agua de la fuente. Vuelve, oh vida, y trae para la flor 13 Return, my love, and bring water agua de la fuente. A form of the Quechua root was also used as a categorical name for a type of folk song, the vidala, which usually treated the topic of a sad lament or complaint of love lost associated with the rural folk traditions of northern Argentina.
Weiss 61 had been given the most minimal exposure to folk music would have known to prepare themselves for a cathartic lament. Accordingly, this song template required very little adaptation or elaboration to do its national work. This may have been the reason why Aguirre began with the Vidalita as his first Argentine art song in Aguirre, like Williams, took advantage of these repetitive rhythms to leave their own chromatically-enhanced colors on select chords for dramatic purposes.
In this case, Aguirre hears an orchestral instrumentation, as evidenced by his instruction in the first measure for the left hand to imitate a horn. The vidalitas that I have been exposed to a more extensive study of this folk form as employed in Argentine art music needs to be done , often employ a poetic metaphor that serve as the dramatic focus for most, if not all, of the strophes.
Evidently, the power available in adapting a folk genre with a well-established, preexisting emotional field—in this case, the folk lament of love gone wrong—went a long way toward building a national emotional repertoire. Weiss 63 2. Serenata campera, op. Both text and music betray the young male persona as bold, awkward, and overenthusiastic in striking contrast to his his choice of poetry, decidedly too big for his britches. The half step appoggiaturas to the third and second degrees in the introduction immediately intimate that something is askew see measures on the second and third beats.
Probably both. Still, the audience is called to an emotional field of nostalgia and compassion for the character as they remember the foibles of youth and kindly follow as he waxes poetic for a woman that is clearly out of his league. The emotional field Aguirre goes after here is a fondness for youth and a subtle approval of the aggressive courtly pursuit. His song crosses back over the bridge of time and rewinds the experiences that bring one into adulthood. His intent is to remind listeners of an earlier state of innocence and invite them to look upon the bumbling main character with kindness.
There is nothing in the poem, save one word, that would alert the audience to overt nationhood. This is a countryside serenade, an Argentine countryside serenade, where one might still imagine the existence of musical gestures reminiscent of courtly love. Weiss 65 In listening to this song, listeners must decide whether the countryside suitor is a rural or urban resident. Whose experience is Aguirre trying to embody with this text and music? These lines are not to be taken seriously, except by the singer, of course.
Other particularly emotive and humorous moments are in measures 45 and when the singer makes an awkward leap of the seventh to close his melodic phrase. The singer ends on a fifth to signify, once again, that this singer is both sincere and sincerely tone deaf. Weiss 66 3. Unas visten de violeta, 5 Some come dressed in violet, las otras de oro y de cal, 6 others in yellows and pale greens, unas vienen tan callando 7 some arrive so softly que no se las ve llegar.
Y el sol asoma un poquito 29 And the sun peaks its head out lleno de curiosidad.
I believe it is the latter assuming a familiarity with the land that was an imagined domain of the former. The idealization of mornings, like those of dusk and evening time, also tap an emotional field of nostalgia, stemming from the fact that a day is changing, lost, or just beginning—again a nostalgia that urban listeners could not rightly own but could rightly borrow during the course of the song. By normalizing his rhythmic motive, Aguirre can draw more attention to the moving inner voices that will lead us through a repetitive closing cadence two times in the first eight measures: [F : I — IV — iv — V7 — I].
This is the huella or this is that folk dance rhythm I have heard before. As soon as the listener has had a chance to own this two-measure phrase, Aguirre plunges into what will be a series of harmonic deviations that follow the expressive shifts required by the different types of sunrises. The move from I to II is particularly dramatic in measure 10 of the introduction since it is his first major move.
She agrees. In order that you have full control over how this information is presented, the header block is defined as a symbol library entry called HEADER. How popular is the Ultra Librarian software and how to download it? The first phase of the project focused on the identification of the optimal level of immersion for the task and the definition of the best age group to be addressed. Biblioteca Scientia, 2 Toledo : The Bologna enigma.
From that point on the ear is more carefully attuned to the shifting inner voices that will serve to color each sunset or new poetic idea in a slightly differently fashion beginning in measure The exact same harmonic strategy is used to close the vocal line at the end of the poem 65 By traditional, I simply mean the huella to which Aguirre was likely esposed.
Weiss 69 measures But this time the piano continues on with its own coda, a truncated version of the introduction, which serves to speak for the person,too absorbed in the warmth of the newly risen sun to say anything more. Just as the rhythms do not get in the way of the harmonic shifts, the music itself does not get in the way of the imagination that the poet hopes to stir with his description of sunrises in the country. The emotional field that Aguirre and Iragorri are going after here is one of stirring admiration of nature.
Weiss 70 4. Caminito…, op. It is an invitation for listeners to invoke their own special path in nature, recalling memories that are not their own, but which that they can claim by virtue of their citizenry. The emotional field of grief and loneliness, either existential in scope or resulting from separation from the beloved, is layered in both poem and music, even in the very earth of the countryside, in the form of a cold, unending, perhaps muddy path, which moves perpetually toward some unknown destination.
So many musical details— from the melodic contours of a regret-filled vocal line meas. The diminutive ending to the word could even reflect irony, if not bitterness and anger. With the dissonant A-sharp in measure 74, Aguirre carefully insures that the resolution to the tonic is delayed and unsettling, avoiding any sense of emotional closure.
It does not imply, as Melanie Plesch worries, that I am attempting to make a favorable comparison that will elevate Aguirre to higher rank in the hierarchy of Western canonized song composers. Der Leiermann. A great deal of work needs to be done to clarify what European models Argentine composers were exposed to, which they found appealing, and why. Weiss 73 which emotional fields, musical topics, or art song models that Argentine composers might have incorporated into their repertories, scholars should also be careful to state the assumptions underlying why such connections should be made.
My working assumption is the following: to use a source text of any kind song structure, the song genre, Romantic emotional fields, Spanish folk music, Spanish classical music, etc. In my view, how a source text was used in local music making and for what purpose skopos is more important than where the source text originated, even if it came from a locus of power.
I believe many Argentine composers felt a certain freedom to freely select and sample from the European banquet of musical practice for their own musico-textual communicative purposes. Obviously, composers and audiences also subscribed to the discourse of contemporaneity and one will find an abundance of performances and musical products that show Argentine composers conceiving of themselves and their production as an extension of contemporary European currents.
Yes, it might be said that the symbolic creation of a nation was in and of itself an idea of European origin, but it was one that Argentine composers were applying to a very specific, local context. Especially in musical constructions where the nation is not explicitly constructed, scholars should be wary of placing a heavier Euro-centric hand on composers than might have actually existed. Musico-textual communication in my view must hinge on the skopos purpose of local target audiences. When target audiences wanted to construct their country as contemporary to and equal with European or Francophone cultural ideals, composers were again free to assemble all available source texts for that purpose.
In reality, and I am the first to admit that my framework does not do justice to the complexity of things, composers and audiences were responding to both discourses simultaneously, in their concerts, in their music, in all aspects of a their culture. In sum, I join the many scholars who find it preferable, whenever possible, to base the evaluation and study of Argentine music on its communicative potential—musical, textual, emotional, or otherwise—for the time and the place for and in which it was produced.
Weiss 75 5. El nido ausente, op. Cielo arriba y senda abajo, 5 Flying up to the sky and down to the path, no halla tregua a su dolor, 6 he finds no relief from his pain, y se para en cada gajo 7 and he stops on every branch preguntando por su amor. The very geography of their natural habitation and the predictability of their migratory patterns i. The piano introduction is designed to invoke the volk with the juxtaposition of triplet figures in the right hand and an occasional duple in the left hand.
The key cadential figure is then repeated periodically in measures 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 33, during the interlude in measures , and again during the coda in measures Perhaps the loosest abstraction of them all how many Spanish or Argentine folk musics do not employ some kind of three against two rhythmic play? A second purpose for the rhythm of measure 13 may have been to bring the image of a guitar and the strumming, singing payador front and center.
The introduction, interludes, and coda, then, serve to represent the instrumental breaks before, between, and after the storytelling strophes of a traditional folk song. Yet another and third purpose of the introduction was to musically represent the bird that is the central figure of the poem. The melodic line ascends and descends, in spurts of upward and downward flight, pausing slightly on the first beats of several measures meas. The singer and poetic persona serve as narrator in this piece to describe the plight of a bird that does not find its nest where it should be.
By further wrapping this scene with the trappings of folk music, ever so lightly and simply applied, Aguirre ties the emotional field closer to ideas of national identity. Finally, by singing about this character in third person and by placing this scene in the presumably Argentine countryside, Aguirre generates the distance necessary trans-create a vicarious emotional experience on national ground. Weiss 78 6. Rosas orientales, op.
The instrumental interlude that follows measures evokes the imagined presentation of the persona male or female to the great Sultan himself. I see two paths, both of which may have existed and functioned simultaneously for listeners. The first is a path to the national via the discourse of originality, where the exotic distance between the observer on the street and the Sultan in Turkey highlights the intimacy and uniqueness of a localized, urban expression of love. The second path, one that led to a more Euro-centric conception of nationhood by way of the discourse of contemporaneity, posits the persona as a successful cosmopolitan traveler watching the same confectioner at work, but in Paris, for example.
In other words, by taking up a cosmopolitan scene and using Spanish instead of the French language to describe it, Lugones and Aguirre assert their membership in an international community with access to the finest material goods which post-colonial metropolis could offer. Weiss 82 7. El Zorzal Canto Tucumano , op. Agudo y fino suena su trino 4 Delicate and fine his trill rings como un cristal, como un cristal.
Aguirre employs embellishments to the melody and bass line, trills, and upward-moving grace notes, to evoke the chirp of a wood thrush. The simple melody of the first verse meas. A pedal release on the pedal in measure 48 marks a break away from the story and a shift to the first- person. Nature overcomes or transcends the different kinds of separation-induced angst that could be experienced in life.
But the same term is used to describe the songs of birds, such as the song of a nightingale. Cantos tend to be more upbeat, playful, and active while the canciones tend to be more lyrical, expressive, and contemplative. Weiss 85 8.
Evocaciones yndias Canto de cuna , op. Weiss 86 9. A la nana nanita nanita Ea 7 And sleep also for the nana, the little nana falls to sleep. En cuanto oye la nana dormido queda 8 As soon as the baby hears the nana sing, the baby m. Weiss 87 Cueca, op. Aguilar, , First, Aguirre selects a text with shorter, catchier lines that point more directly toward a campesino countryside poetic voice, utilizing rhythmic and poetic meters that could be more quickly associated with a payador, thereby reinstating the gaucho minstrel as an easiest target for Otherness74 Second, Aguirre labels this poem Cueca in honor of the lively triple meter dance rhythm that forms the core of the piano accompaniment, even though the text itself has nothing to do with the dance as poetic topic.
Sighing figures meas. Fourth, Aguirre uses the folk music to create both geographic and class distinctions. At last we see what might be referred to as a classic case of folk idealization in music and text. Only an innocent countryside persona would talk to the moon in this fashion. Middle- and upper-class audiences listening to this music would find this picture of innocent expression to be ever-more intriguing as the twenties and thirties presented them with increasing political and economic turmoil. Once again, the repetitive phrasing mades it easy for listeners to predict the melodic phrasing in the context of a relatively long song, in practical effect, making it easier for audiences to sing along.
The eight songs discussed so far span what I would like to consider as three distinct, but related, paths toward Argentine musical nationalism. Obviously, one of the problems with the unqualified term nationalism its connotations with more overt-flavors of politicized nationalism and the Romantic conceptions of nationalism emanating from Europe. In Argentina, within the art song genre, the music scores themselves seem to attest to at least three different ways to the nation, all of which were more or less available to composers between and , but which became more or less relevant to local audiences and their composers, at different points in time.
Weiss 91 attaining an effect similar to that of a dramatic reading of the poem. The implied folk singer being reinacted through the song could be a gaucho, but did not have to be. It might also be the femail voice of a woman folk singer, usually desparate in love. The important limiting factor of this path was that the land from whence this musical personality arose. Land and the people native to it were still sincerely looked down upon; it was still the utility of land for economic growth and Euro-centric development that mattered most.
To take the next step, as Aguirre did, was to follow what traditionalist poets and writers began in the mid-teens. This second path consisted of a more thorough-composed assimilation of folk-inspired materials and the appropriation of volk ways of sensing the world. The invention of emotions belonging to volk but appropriated by urban residents, included energetic love, boastful love, loneliness and dispair, separation overcome through nature, grief and sadness, or safety and security.
Traditionalism extended. Now, instead of taking his audiences to the westward Pampas or to the northern regions of Argentina, he takes them to a pre-Colombian experience belonging not just to the regions of his country where indigenous populations had been exterminated a mere forty years earlier but to anywhere in the continent that bespoke a pure musical and emotional expression, outside of colonial history, and still closely tied to non-national land.
An additioanl way to break down the barriers of national geography was an appeal to cosmopolitanism and its own emotive potentiality. Nostalgic nationalism. Indeed, the possibility for audiences to view themselves as spiritual inheriters of a land and its folk culture make little sense, given the deteriorating hierarchy of centralized land-holdings and rapidly shifting channels of political power. Instead, the composer will simply highlight a folk genre, typically a dance, and utilize poetry with a strong, exaggerated folk accent.
Those were the people that could still feel. Real folk music and real folk feeling are things of the past, impossible to be experienced, but readily available for fond remembering. He was the composer that incorporated folk music when it could still be felt. By listening to these songs, they would imagine and partake in emotional spaces unique to their nation. How did he do this? To answer this question, I propose that we borrow frameworks from translation studies. Still, I find in these frameworks an intriguing approach for detailing the mechanics of communication occurring in other cultural media, including the art song.
Weiss 95 And I believe that they can help disentagle how questions of musico-textual communication relate to questions of collective or national identity. I have labeled this configuration of ideas and strategies as falling under a discourse of contemporaneity, which I define as defined as analogous comparison- making relative to a perceived cultural center. Just as imperial nations could not fully define themselves until the age of exploration delivered a distant, exotic, and malleable Other to their doorstep, the Argentine elite could not construct a national imaginary without their own differential of Otherness taken from within.
A quest, post- colonialist theorists would say, for the myths of national traditions that could unify a diverse population and legitimize developing channels of political and economic power. I label this configuration of ideas and strategies as falling under a discourse of originality, defined as difference-making relative to a perceived cultural center. Weiss 96 I see these two discourses playing out in Argentine art song, the four lullabies I highlight in this chapter will hopefully make clear.
Many people later came that, though assimilated to a great degree and even managed to take on some of the virtues and defects of the Argentines, did not, for the most part, integrate completely with the rest of society. My father always said that we were not a nation but an amorphous conglomeration…We are lacking in the love for country that still remains in certain cultural circles, those that you would probably call elites. Thanks to the production of the elite—and it is their production that sustains our culture today—a citizenry could be formed to whom could be transmitted a love for tradition or for those elements that could united us as a nation.
Her narration of nationhood 79 Lasala, E-mail interview, March 5, Weiss 97 begins with nostalgia for a time when the city of Buenos Aires was more unified and less complicated by the presence of immigrants, a city with strong ties to Spanish culture and the Spanish families that up until then had been the gatekeepers of political and economic power. During his long career as a piano teacher, performer, composer, and writer, Aguirre was known for his generosity and modesty.
Weiss 98 Illustration Weiss 99 Illustration Photos courtesy Graciela Aguirre. I' , i, Piano C. Pora Misfit 0 1' oudidon. It is with his production that that we see the beginnings, neither tentative nor accidental, but a most perfect fulfillment of that ideal which today is unanimously pursued by our composers: that of Argentine musical nationalism, a pronouncement fashioned by their own peculiar values within the art world. An inspired folklorist, his intense study of pre-colombian music yielded much fruit. He forged a unique musical language marked by refined sensibility and gentlemanly elegance.
Today, with the collaboration of eminant performers, the Wagner Society of Buenos Aires, pays tribute and homage to the memory of our dear friend and distiguished musician, who might yet have yet added more glorious days to Argentine music, and whose passing shall compell many a regretful commemoration of this moment in the history of our national culture. It was published in the magazine Bibelot on July 30, Luna blanca.. Weiss II. The sixth concert featured songs by Argentine composers, most of which did not invoke any kind of criollismo see Illustrations 23 and The placement of this program as final in a series of six recitals strengthened the idea that Argentine composers were following and, indeed, contributing to the Western art music tradition of song, most especially the line of modern French chanson, the entire focus of the fifth and previous concert.
Organizers and audiences for this particular series saw themselves as partners of European musical production, every bit as evolved and sophisticated in their own musical expressions. Only the year-old Alberto Williams, senior member of the composers featured that evening, would be allowed, we might say, to include songs of a national flavor, to stand for a kind of nationalism in music that had surfaced briefly at the turn of the century and which was resurfacing again in the form of traditionalism.
Petite Inga Both of the pieces by Aguirre were from the French cycle Jardins… composed twenty years earlier. NSO ' 1 1 Cantiqu. Weiss III. As far as I can tell, they were rarely, if ever, sung by children soloists, though the scores do not differ substationally from their art song counterparts. Given the relatively small and close-knit circle of art song producers, composers and juries alike may have felt justified in making awards to composers for songs that stretched the definition of the category.
Particularly, the poetic message made these songs appropriate for recital as well as music education settings. Weiss IV. Composer as translator, mediator of cultural texts The framework that follows is a preliminary guide, a working model, that at some future point, might help to achieve a more balanced musical and cultural analysis of the Argentine art song, one that, even while recognizing the polarities that did exist for producers and consumers—i.
The success of the composer, in this view, is judged mainly by the extent to which it fulfills or might have fulfilled the skopos of his or her contemporary audiences. This view places upon creators a communicative imperative, the responsibility to create something that will be valued and understood by another human being. The purpose of this Chapter is to delve a little deeper into the distancing and adapting strategies which, combined with those nationalized emotions, would form the traditionalist esthetic.
Action theory, itself an offspring of communication theory, allows us to delineate communicative roles and think about the characteristic aspects of each. The criteria for a successful translation is whether communication did occur and fulfilled the skopos of the target audience. The metaphor of translation can be extended, as Rolf Kloepfer has done with literary studies, to include a variety of roles, including my role as an academic trans-creator of musical phenomena. What Aguirre and other early nationally-inclined composers do with their music is a loose adaptation, an incomplete adaptation that aimed for more of an emotional effect.
By employing loose adaptation instead of a tight algamation, trans-creators of Argentine art music also maintained the foreign feel of the folk music source materials, thereby creating the distance-as-difference necessary to assume a mediating role. Weiss the role and function of a translator to other players, such as institutions, sponsors, commissioners, poets, performers, listeners, and publishers.
In reality, several people are involved in the trans-creation of a musico-textual product via a number of different roles. Weiss Compositional trans-creation Translatorial action embedded in embedded in musico-textual transcultural text production production Examples: I.
Initiator Sponsor Government-sponsored campaign for educational music by Argentine composers i. Source text distributor Publishers, printers Audio recordings, scores, performances, lectures, periodicals, magazines, books, essays IV. One scenario of trans-creation in musico-textual communication.
Leaders of public and private institutions, collegial connections, poets from Spain and Latin America, music educators, and children were just some of the individuals involved. But what we have seen so far in terms of documented formal concerts seems to point to the fact that target text receivers did not regard such music as fulfilling their skopos for consuming art music until somewhere around These strategies were: first, the creation of distance via poetic and musical topics to reinforce the transcendent powers of the composer and his or her target texts, second, the intentionally loose adaptation of source material that would be recognizable and feel familiar to target audiences, and third, the invocation of emotional fields connected with the Nation, which a portion of Argentine concert-goers wanted increasingly desire to be a part of, beginning around Trans-creation in the service of National identity.
Weiss V. Two strategies of trans-creation Distancing. This familiarization, as I see it, is done largely by integrating difference into pre-existing and shared emotional experiences. Via the act of listening, audiences could trans-create new and personal versions of the difference being represented. This strategy, based on the discourse of contemporaneity, posited Argentina as up-to-date and current in its cultural developments relative to Europe in general and France in particular. Texts from a creole or exotic imaginary, on the other hand, served as the distant, foreign entity that composers required to tell stories that could trademark existing Romantic emotional fields and tie them to the imaginary of a shared national experience.
Other distances which Aguirre overcame through his songs were of a more personal or emotional nature: the distance between adulthood and childhood, the agonizing distance caused by separation from a loved one, as well as the distance between a lover and his object of desire. These kinds of mini-dramas, all of which can be found in traditionalist poetry of the same period, did not rely on exotic distances but were equally powerful in their construction of a nation because of their reference to a shared emotional field Figures 3 and 4.
For a particular period in the cultural history of Buenos Aires, then, the composer as mediator of certain kinds of distances was also a mediator of national identity. It is important to acknowledge that the codifying of shared emotional fields via creole storylines and symbols was an uneven and slow process. Silvana Mansilla has shown that the reception of nationally-oriented music was often lukewarm, even throughout the 20s and 30s, meaning that target audiences did not always share the same skopos for consuming art music in public settings. With the overlapping of these two discourses in mind, we can better appreciate the varied approaches to national identity through musico-textual communication.
Just because a song did not speak to the discourse of originality did not necessarily mean that it did not help to consolidate national identity. This model helps us to disambiguate, then, the formation of national identity from cultural products that are often labeled as nationalistic.
It was an accepted practice, for example, that portions of the seated public would talk during less-than-interesting passages of music and that many spectators would arrive late. The frequent presense of President Alvear  in the Theatre helped to chage that for the better. Spectators took note of his glowering presence from the presidential balcony on the second floor from which vantage point the president would point his big binoculars in the direction of any audience member not behaving themselves.
Weiss others like it in the realm of Argentine art music are more easily understood within a framework of composer as mediator, as trans-creator. When the distance between source text and target text is perceived as too narrow, creators effectively discount their role as translator or trans-creator.
To utilize the French translations of poets like Jean Richepin or Robert Burns was to posit an assumed familiarity with European cultural currents frosted with Parisian cosmopolitanism, particularly its literature and poetry see Appendix B. Where distancing 94 This argument could be taken a step further, that is to say that increasing distance increases the space wherein trans-creators can tell stories of any kind, not just those related to the Nation.
Loose adaption. Skopos theory recognizes such constraints but asserts that they are infinitely flexible and can shift depending on the communicative purpose of the target text. Within a more malleable or functionalist view of translation, adaption becomes just another flavor of translation—a looser translation—that can be justifiably employed when the skopos requires it.
Some argue that adaptation is necessary precisely in order to keep the message intact at least on the global level , while others see it as a betrayal of the original author. For the former, the refusal to adapt confines the reader to an artificial world of 'foreignness'; for the latter, adaptation is tantamount to the destruction and violation of the original text.
Even those who recognize the need for adaptation in certain circumstances are obliged to admit that, if remaining faithful to the text is a sine qua non of translation, then there is a point at which adaption ceases to be translation at all. This becomes evident when one considers the heated debates that have raged over the translation of the Bible ever since the first versions began to appear.
Weiss here is that as trans-creators approach some locus of Western power so-called centers they are sure to find increasing resistance to the flexible re-creations of source texts. Translators that widen the distance between source text and target audience put themselves in a position of power as the only interpreters qualified to explain what the source text meant to source text audiences when it was written.
They are, in fact, translating between disparate audiences, separated by time. Proponents of adaption, however, find that the power to trans-create a source text into terms that are immediately intelligible to target text audiences in the present time is equally and perhaps more important to the vitality and continuing relevance of a given source text.
By adapting, the translator sheds some of the academic prestige that accompanies specialized knowledge, but in exchange, reaches a larger, but less-scholarly audience. Adaptors are more concerned with the communicative function of their target text. They want it to reach their target audience on terms that they can understand. We likewise conceive of composers working in the universalistic vein i. Composers working in the nationalistic vein i. These are the trans-creators who believed their role to be one of adaptation, who wished to adapt Western musical genres i.
I quote Bastin once again: The study of adaptation encourages the theorist to look beyond purely linguistic issues and helps shed light on the role of the translator as mediator, as a creative participant in a process of verbal communication. Relevance, rather than accuracy, becomes the key word, and this entails a careful analysis of three major concepts in translation theory: meaning, purpose and intention.
We could say that translation—or what is traditionally understood by the term translation—stays basically a the level of meaning, adaptation seeks to transmit the purpose of the original text, and exegesis attempts to spell out the intentions of the author. And this split occurred between competing discourses of originality and contemporanetiy. On the one hand, they were desirous to contribute to the ongoing development of a Western art music canon i.
On the other hand, they had aspirations to communicate with local audiences but found themselves confronted with an equally small audience i. Not surprisingly, to maximize their chances of survival, Argentine composers like Aguirre frequently chose both paths during course of their careers. Where the former represents an innocent, pre-Columbian expression listeners might imagine a pan-Amerindian mother chanting a magical blessing over her child in the out-of-doors , the latter represents a more civilized lullaby listeners might imagine a nanny or mother in the nursery of a well-to-do household in the city.
The codes in these two songs, at least, are virtually interchangeable. However, when we consider the care with which the rest of the score was engraved and printed and the fact that it was published in , when Aguirre would have had an opportunity to correct any errors, we are left with two slightly different interpretations. The imagery here is of a faithful warrior who is released from his duties as the sun rises. This seems to fit better with the punctuation used in the song, but only a comparison to the original manuscript could give us the definitive answer.
According to one Hindi- speaker from India, the word could be used to describe the characteristics of the ferocious lions etched in stone that stand guard at the eastern entrance of sun temples, such as the famous sun temple of Konark. Since the first mention of this song is in , it is possible that Aguirre inserts here a linguistic reference to Otherness in his musical representation of an American Other. Thanks to Sudhanshu Malhotra and Alex for their ideas on this. Weiss mysterious, female persona meas. The piece ends with a return to the A section sung in hushed pianissimo tones.
Finally, the drumming of the piano fades away in the distance. But the two songs also transcend differences of time, culture, and place by pointing out a great similarity, the thread of maternal instinct, love, and protection, which linked both worlds together in spite of their differing manners of expression. The adjective dormido indicates that it is a baby boy at the heart of this maternal scene.
The ascending melodic line in measures and arpeggios in measures enact the mother taking one last yawn as the rocking chair comes to a slow halt. The central musical moment of this piece follows in measures , as listeners are invited to observe the mother and child sleeping, as if in real time. This occurs when the piano, in place of the vocalist, intones the actual melody of the lullaby, first heard at the beginning of the song meas.
When the song returns to a more narrative-like posture in measure 65, we have two possible experiences for listeners. I prefer the latter interpretation. Starting with the very first measure, when the open strings of a guitar are plucked in ascending motion—G3, D4, A4, D5, A5—listeners are alerted to the idea of a guitar, but not to a faithful musical representation of it.
This guitar is meant only to evoke the lazy strumming of open strings, its repetitive arpeggios, the cyclical and static nature of rocking or breathing. The song, like the rocking chair, undulates eternally in the same place. In other words, though precise memories have fled, but the feeling of safety and security, deeply embedded in the human psyche, persists and is made suddenly clear. Childhood and nostalgia Viewing the child and childhood through an adult urban lens became increasingly important in the twenties for at least three reasons.
First, I believe that lullabies held a special attraction for Argentine composers, because of their potential for unifying listeners on a purely emotional level. The strong emotional fields that come with such images include safety, security, peace, contentedness, happiness, and calm. By including these emotional fields within a national music, listeners were encouraged to think of themselves as ensuring the same things for themselves and their families.
And all of this represents the identity of my nation as well. The lullabies of this female nation incorporated and integrated a pre-Colonial past, a rich heritage of indigenous and Spanish origins, while simultaneously assuring a bright future. At the same time, the child-as-adult, traumatized by an ever-increasing consciousness of class difference, sought to be comforted by the nostalgic idea of a nation that could heal its rifts and differences through collective will.
Working in partnership with emotional themes like safety and security, nostalgia becomes an increasingly important memory- or history-making tool in both of these lullabies. To evoke nostalgia is to evoke memories, not that we had, but that we should have had and can now claim as our own. Nostalgia makes way for a homogenizing of history and a soothing of differences. Nostalgia as applied to motherhood was particularly potent in this regard since a disparate population could at least agree on one thing: they all loved their mothers.
Weiss As Svetlana Boym describes, Nostalgia goes beyond individual psychology. At first glance, nostalgia is a longing for place, but actually it is a yearning for a different time—the time of our childhood, the slower rhythms of our dreams. In a broader sense, nostalgia is rebellion against the modern idea of time, the time of history and progress. The nostalgic desires to obliterate history and turn it into private or collective mythology, to revisit time like space. The blending of these two multi-vocal poles in the midst of the two prevailing discourses, that of contemporaneity and originality, made it possible for concert- going audiences in urban Argentina to call themselves out of the music, and to recognize, claim, and, resolve in some way the contradictory layers of political, economic, and social history that were theirs.
His ability to repurpose Romantic emotional fields, such as the awe of nature, love, separation, grief, and security, for the construction of a national imaginary was unparalleled by the song composers of his generation. Remnants of this national imaginary are still consumed today in cities throughout Argentina, though usually working at the level of modernized folk music, folk kitch, and popular iconography. The menu on his website lists such varied topics as love, animals, plants, architecture, bulls, carnivals, cars, cities, historical national , flowers, fruits, furniture, interiors, jazz, pop and rock music, gauchos, cows, horses, soccer, tango, trains, urban landscape, women, mystical, pianos, and argentine cows, pointing to the fact that Diego is responding simultaneously to discourses of originality and contemporaneity.
In his trans-creation, Diego chose to invent a far- away, mystical, and dream-like landscape within which to embed four long-standing symbols of Argentine folk culture: the paisanita or country girl dressed in blue, the campesino or country boy dressed in white linen, the guitar as instrument of an Argentine- specific courtly love ritual the serenade he will sing to her as she sleeps , and the single path bifurcating into two—the ill-fated love affair. The four principal symbols, centrally located, had pointed both my eye and my heart to the central emotional messages of the poem: separation, grief, nostalgia, and pain.
My first trans-creation of this painting, therefore, was one that fell heavily to the right of center on the diagram in Figure 8. Still, there is something to be said for his ability to recreate what he thought I wanted via the poem. It stood out to him as exemplifying an artistic formula for nation building that during his lifetime had captured the imaginations of art-consuming, concert-going urban publics. Even today, from our so-called post-modern vantage point, the effectiveness of this formula for nation making cannot be denied.
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