Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.
Traumatic brain injury TBI may affect 10 million people worldwide. It is considered the "signature wound" of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries result from a bump or blow to the head, or from external forces that cause the brain to move within the head, such as whiplash or exposure to blasts. TBI can cause an array of physical and mental health concerns and is a growing problem, particularly among soldiers and veterans because of repeated exposure to violent environments.
One form of treatment for TBI is cognitive rehabilitation therapy CRT , a patient-specific, goal-oriented approach to help patients increase their ability to process and interpret information. The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content. You may request permission to:. For most Academic and Educational uses no royalties will be charged although you are required to obtain a license and comply with the license terms and conditions.
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Why is an eBook better than a PDF? Where do I get eBook files? Overview Contents Rights Stats. It can also be used as a research tool to provide insight into the biomechanics and pathophysiology of tissue abnormality. The aims of this study were: 1 to gain an understanding of current physical therapist practice in an Australian acute care setting and 2 to determine what physical therapists consider to be best practice physical therapist management and their rationale for their assessment and treatment techniques.
Results show that current physical therapist management in the acute setting for patients following hip fracture varies and is driven by system pressures as opposed to evidence-based practice. This review focuses on neuroimaging studies that have examined reorganization of brain function during force production and force modulation after stroke.
Type and extent of reorganization after stroke was characterized via three factors: severity of injury, time after stroke and the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain activation during force production. This systematic review establishes that reorganization of brain function during force production and force modulation can occur after stroke. These findings imply that therapeutic strategies that may be able to target brain reorganization to improve force control and functional recovery after stroke. The aim of this study is to determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke.
Results show that there is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task.
The system uses a decision theoretic model a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises.
In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. One objective of the Montreal Barriers Study is to examine demographic characteristics of people with vision impairment that may hinder their referral or decision to access rehabilitation services.
Results show that it seems that even under ideal referral situations, there remain barriers to vision rehabilitation services that have not been specifically identified in the present study. Further research is necessary on the psychological and psychosocial contributors to this process.
This commentary summarizes the array of treatments currently available for back pain, notes the results of recent trials and guidelines and considers alternative approaches that may prove more valuable in achieving better patient outcomes in the future. This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program.
Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats visual communication framework for goal setting. Findings indicate that consensus is possible amongst professionals and clients even within an acute rehabilitation setting. In addition, the Talking Mats visual communication framework appears to be a valid protocol for including clients with acquired communication disabilities in the process of obtaining consensus during goal-setting.
Early stroke rehabilitation has shown benefits over spontaneous recovery. Insufficient evidence exists to determine the benefits of early aphasia intervention. The authors hypothesized that daily aphasia therapy would show better communication outcomes than usual care UC in early poststroke recovery. Results of the study show that daily aphasia therapy in very early stroke recovery improved communication outcomes in people with moderate to severe aphasia. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other international human rights conventions guarantee the fundamental human rights to physical, social, and psychological health.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether these rights are being upheld in Canada for disabled women.
Access barriers resulted from the inefficiencies and complexities of the multiple agencies and programs that disabled women had to navigate, difficulties accessing information on available services, and negative attitudes of some health and social service providers. Individual illness perceptions have been highlighted as important influences on clinical outcomes for back pain. The aim of this study was to initiate qualitative research in this area in order to further understand these wider influences on outcome.
The findings from this exploratory study reveal how others and wider social circumstances might contribute both to the propensity of persistent back pain and to its consequences. The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index.
However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of life in stroke survivors. This exploratory study examined the extent to which postinjury employment was predictable when patients were followed up 2 years' postdischarge from a specialist Spinal Cord Injury SCI Unit.
Results show that the main implication of the study results is that nontraditional variables i.
Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence (). Consensus Study Report. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for . In October , the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence.
This video uses simple language and images of real people who have sustained a brain injury, as well as medical experts and advocates. Original study: The crossed leg sign indicates a favorable outcome after severe stroke More news, click here. Authors : Dagmar Amtmann, Karon F.