He also admitted that his field of psychology was not competent to understand the eastern insight of the Atman "the self".
You can also use a bad mood as a starting-point, and then try to find out what sort of fantasy-image it will produce, or what image expresses this mood. Primitive feeling is equally bound to material phenomena. In his psychological theory — which is not necessarily linked to a particular theory of social structure — the persona appears as a consciously created personality or identity, fashioned out of part of the collective psyche through socialization , acculturation and experience. This fierceness is psychologically linked to a joy in life, to the passion and wildness we have just seen in the Great Mother archetype. Sell on Snapdeal. The Soul's Religion.
Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital. After , his travels were confined to Europe. Jung became a full professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel in , but resigned after a heart attack the next year to lead a more private life. He became ill again in Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies , which analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs.
In , Jung wrote his last work, a contribution to Man and His Symbols entitled "Approaching the Unconscious" published posthumously in Jung's thought was formed by early family influences, which on the maternal side were a blend of interest in the occult and in solid reformed academic theology. Jung's interest in philosophy and the occult led many to view him as a mystic, although his preference was to be seen as a man of science.
The major concepts of analytical psychology as developed by Jung include: . Archetype — a concept "borrowed" from anthropology to denote supposedly universal and recurring mental images or themes. Jung's definitions of archetypes varied over time and have been the subject of debate as to their usefulness. Archetypal images — universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures.
Complex — the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour. Extraversion and introversion — personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type. Shadow — the repressed, therefore unknown, aspects of the personality including those often considered to be negative. Collective unconscious — aspects of unconsciousness experienced by all people in different cultures. Anima — the contrasexual aspect of a man's psyche, his inner personal feminine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image.
Animus — the contrasexual aspect of a woman's psyche, her inner personal masculine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image. Self — the central overarching concept governing the individuation process, as symbolised by mandalas, the union of male and female, totality, unity. Jung viewed it as the psyche's central archetype. Individuation — the process of fulfilment of each individual "which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both".
Synchronicity — an acausal principle as a basis for the apparently random simultaneous occurrence of phenomena. Jung was one of the first people to define introversion and extraversion in a psychological context. In Jung's Psychological Types , he theorizes that each person falls into one of two categories, the introvert and the extravert. These two psychological types Jung compares to ancient archetypes, Apollo and Dionysus. The introvert is likened with Apollo, who shines light on understanding.
The introvert is focused on the internal world of reflection, dreaming and vision. Thoughtful and insightful, the introvert can sometimes be uninterested in joining the activities of others. The extravert is associated with Dionysus, interested in joining the activities of the world. The extravert is focused on the outside world of objects, sensory perception and action. Energetic and lively, the extravert may lose their sense of self in the intoxication of Dionysian pursuits.
In his psychological theory — which is not necessarily linked to a particular theory of social structure — the persona appears as a consciously created personality or identity, fashioned out of part of the collective psyche through socialization , acculturation and experience. The persona , he argues, is a mask for the "collective psyche", a mask that 'pretends' individuality, so that both self and others believe in that identity, even if it is really no more than a well-played role through which the collective psyche is expressed.
Jung regarded the "persona-mask" as a complicated system which mediates between individual consciousness and the social community: it is "a compromise between the individual and society as to what a man should appear to be". Jung has become enormously influential in management theory; not just because managers and executives have to create an appropriate "management persona" a corporate mask and a persuasive identity,  but also because they have to evaluate what sort of people the workers are, in order to manage them for example, using personality tests and peer reviews.
Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism , Buddhism , Gnosticism , Taoism , and other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation , is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Jung's idea of religion as a practical road to individuation is still treated in modern textbooks on the psychology of religion , though his ideas have also been criticized.
Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism, and he is considered to have had an indirect role in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous. After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that, occasionally, such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics when all other options had failed.
Hazard took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal, spiritual experience. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program. The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill Wilson, excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On , published by Alcoholics Anonymous.
The remarks were distributed privately in transcript form, from shorthand taken by an attender Jung reportedly approved the transcript , and later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works , The Symbolic Life,. For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus. Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Roman Catholics. The 12 step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has an intense psychological backdrop, involving the human ego and dichotomy between the conscious and unconscious mind.
Jung had an apparent interest in the paranormal and occult. For decades he attended seances and claimed to have witnessed "parapsychic phenomena".
Initially he attributed these to psychological causes, even delivering lecture in England for the Society for Psychical Research on "The Psychological Foundations for the belief in spirits". Jung's ideas about the paranormal culminated in " synchronicity ", his idea that meaningful connections in the world manifest through coincidence with no apparent causal link. Jung influenced one philosophical interpretation not the science of quantum physics with the concept of synchronicity regarding some events as non-causal. That idea influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli with whom, via a letter correspondence, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality and some other physicists.
The work and writings of Jung from the s onwards focused on alchemy. In Jung published Psychology and Alchemy , in which he analyzed the alchemical symbols and came to the conclusion that there is a direct relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process. Mysterium Coniunctionis was Jung's last book and focused on the " Mysterium Coniunctionis " archetype, known as the sacred marriage between sun and moon.
Jung proposed that art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal. At times of emotional distress, he often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions which he recognized as more than recreational. Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a person's relation to the state and society.
He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it",  and referred to the state as a form of slavery. Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish and he maintained relations with them through the s when anti-semitism in Germany and other European nations was on the rise. However, until , he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi regime and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi sympathizer.
The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies:. The International Society's constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, rather than through one of the national affiliated societies, a provision to which Jung drew attention in a circular in In , this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi positions  and Hitler's book Mein Kampf. Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake". For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy.
Jung's interest in European mythology and folk psychology has led to accusations of Nazi sympathies, since they shared the same interest. Jung clearly identifies himself with the spirit of German Volkstumsbewegung throughout this period and well into the s and s, until the horrors of Nazism finally compelled him to reframe these neopagan metaphors in a negative light in his essay on Wotan. There are writings showing that Jung's sympathies were against, rather than for, Nazism.
Hitler seemed like the 'double' of a real person, as if Hitler the man might be hiding inside like an appendix, and deliberately so concealed in order not to disturb the mechanism You know you could never talk to this man; because there is nobody there It is not an individual; it is an entire nation. In an interview with Carol Baumann in , Jung denied rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying:. It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view.
Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism. Others have argued contrary to this, with reference to his writings, correspondence and public utterances of the s. Jung was in contact with Allen Dulles of the Office of Strategic Services predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency and provided valuable intelligence on the psychological condition of Hitler.
Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion", spirituality and the New Age movement has been immense. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in , ranked Jung as the 23rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. The Collected Works of C. Executive ed. Trans R.
London: Routledge Kegan Paul — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jung disambiguation. Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist. Kesswil , Thurgau , Switzerland. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also: Psychoanalysis. Main article: Extraversion and introversion. See also: persona psychology. Main article: Carl Jung publications. Main article: The Collected Works of C.
Psychiatry portal Psychology portal. Bair, Deirdre Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. Jung emphasized the significance of the symbolic structure of alchemical texts, a structure that is understood as a way independent of laboratory research, as a structure per se. Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa.
Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy. Also, C. Jung, Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte , Speeches made in , are excerpted. He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob and were under its strong influence. He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered he was blacklisted by the Nazis. They eliminated his writings.
The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Cambridge University, Toronto Life. Casey, Jason M. Wirth eds. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Pearson Longman. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Jung 1 ed. New York: Atheneum. Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December He was an Arabist; but the family money ran out for his studies.
Relief came from a family legacy, however, a condition of the will was that it should only be offered to a family member who intended to study theology and become a pastor. Paul Jung therefore had his career determined by a will, not his will. See page The Art Therapy Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill Professional. Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 9 April A Life of Jung 1st American ed. New York: W. JUNG: Experiences". IWC Schaffhausen. Retrieved 7 September A secret symmetry.
Sabina Spielrien between Jung and Freud. Tender love and transference. International Journal of Psychoanalysis'. The snares of seduction in life and in therapy, or what do young [Jewish] girls Spielrein seek in their Aryan heroes Jung , and vice versa? Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books. The correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C. Translated by Ralph Manheim and R. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Jung — A Biography. Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker.
Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Pantheon Books. Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Freud: A Life for Our Time. See also: Jung, Collected Works vol. The Guardian. Journal of Analytical Psychology. Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. Retrieved 7 June Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology.
Constance E. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September Rubin Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 11 July Psychology and Western Religion.
Ark Routledge. A third and equally weighty essay is Psychology and Religion , originally given as the Terry Lectures at Yale University in Editorial Note by William McGuire. Palgrave Macmillan. Jung in Africa. Jung , p. Clemens, Carl Gustav Jung, Jung , Princeton. It was first published as Antwort auf Hiob , Zurich, and translated into English in , in London. Boston: Little, Brown.
Carl G. Jung is Dead at 85; Pioneer in Analytic Psychology". Jung the Mystic. Psychological Types. Princeton University Press, CelebrityTypes International. Retrieved 9 June William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ; Robert H. Hopcke, Persona. Berkeley: Shambhala Publications, New York: Viking Press, , p. In: Angelika Ebbinghaus et al. Vienna: Akademische Verlagsanstalt, , pp. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Auf Unendliches bezogen — Spirituelle Entdeckungen bei C. Munich: Koesel. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. Psychology of Religion: Classic and Contemporary Views. Wiley and Sons. Introduction to Alcoholism Counseling. Message Reached the World. Hope Makers. Retrieved 5 June Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal. Psychology Press. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 8 August We share a common present, filled with uncertainty. And we share a common future, as yet untold. In fact, the source of humor in his tales is often his attempt to cover up his motives when they are so blatantly apparent that we can hardly side with those ingenuous enough to be duped by him.
Certainly, these things are as they should be in an archetype whose business is to show us the necessity of humility by putting our human foibles and our human limits into perspective. It was the psychologist Carl Jung who introduced the idea of the archetype into contemporary currency. He is responsible for making the archetype a key idea in both the study of folklore and the study of psychology.
Jung saw the collective unconscious, that is, as consisting of the symbols, feelings and ideas that are persistent across human cultures.
It is the reservoir of our common humanity. In this collective unconscious are the archetypes, which are its central repetitive forms. Jung saw these as dynamic patterns whose processes reveal our human capacities and experience—and as such, they are persistent in folklore throughout the world. The archetypes, in their universal expression of particular patterns of behavior, feeling, and thinking, have a compelling influence on the human psyche. Their compelling qualities archetypes are illustrated by the fact that they and their symbols often appear in our dreams.
Jung did much of his work as a result of his horror of Nazi Germany. He hoped to understand the human capacity for human evil in order to prevent the recurrence of such human actions in the future. An archetype in itself is neither good nor evil; archetypes are no more and no less than the patterns of our own human nature.
We saw this in the case of the Trickster figure, which showed us how the same aspects of human behavior might be expressed by a sociopath or redeemer— depending on the responsibility and wisdom with which they are put into action. In their making modeling and making conscious archetypes of human behavior such as the Trickster, Jung felt that folklore had been an essential form of psychological education for human societies for generations.
A good many other contemporary psychologists, such as James Hillman and Marion Woodman—and Allan Chinen, whose text we are using in this class, express the same belief. Jung had more to say about the archetypes. Both these aspects of the shadow are equally important and are related to one another. From Freud, Jung took the idea which Freud took from modern physics, that matter—including psychological matter—can be neither created nor destroyed.
Therefore those needs, feelings, impulses which we repress do not simply go away as we would hope them to, but remain with us in our unconscious. And as such, if repressed they are always ready to surface at the most unhappy times. Those parts of ourselves we reject are often also projected onto others. In like manner, if we reject or hide or neglect part of an archetype and the part of our human nature it expresses this shadow will stay with us—and will continue to haunt us.
In this context, we must view the archetypes we inherit as part of our humanity fully consciously— we must see them as whole, in their bright and dark aspects, and not as one-sided, glossed-over, idealized—or repressed. Jung felt each archetype enters our life as a potential that is part of our wholeness —and which may exert considerable power over us if it remains unconscious.
By contrast, it may be used as a power for self-knowledge and decision-making if we understand it consciously and use it wisely. As we read Chinen, we may see examples of ways in which traditional folklore give us an antidote to such compulsive action— giving us the means to balance our psychological impulses and act as whole human beings by choice. We can understand the idea of the archetype and its light and dark not good and evil aspects by looking at another archetype. The archetype we are about to encounter has a totally different feel than that of the Trickster.
Though it is a part of her very nature to change her being the Navajo name her Changing Woman, since she passes, as does the earth itself, from barrenness to fertility, from old age, to youth, to old age again , the Great Mother does not change her mind. She does not need to. She makes no mistakes. The only humor we see in her is the humor of our own interaction with her. Or the bemused forbearance of the Grandmother Spider-Great Mother in the Kiowa tale, in which her son disobeys her, thereby becoming twins, and she mumbles to herself that now she must raise two of these troublesome boys.
The Great Mother does not hesitate; she sets her course and keeps to it.
And she has the power to do this. Again, this is in decided contrast to the Trickster figure. The Trickster fools around and bumbles, reducing even the most sacred values and beliefs to humorously human proportions. The Great Mother, by contrast, inspires awe and reverence. With this last observation, I have just characterized the key idea in the pattern of this archetype.
The Great Mother is the source of life, and as such she is depicted in three persistent images. Two of her key images flow from her identification with Nature as Mother Earth. First, we find her as images of fertility the womb, the soil, the internal and mysterious spring of life ; second, as transformation the seasonal round of nature, which frames our own personal birth and death and which is clearly expressed in the Navajo Changing Woman of our readings. Third, she as the source of life, the Great Mother is also identified with woman as mother or as another feminine ancestor.
As the mother of mother, or grandmother, she appears as mentor, tutor, and bestower of magical gifts on both men and women in folktales from around the world. In Native American tales, the grandmother is an especially key figure, and here we find her as the most humanized depiction of the Great Mother, as the gentle and kindly, if exacting, person who teaches us to get along in the world.
In Russian tales, she is often the wily Baba Yaga, who lives by herself, and sets seemingly impossible tasks for those who seek her advice or are kidnapped by her. Nevertheless, she does stick to her own rules to the point of eccentricity and sometimes, to the point of destruction of those who cannot appropriately perceive and navigate those rules-but for those who can manage them, there are quite incredible rewards.
If she appears as ugly, frail, or diseased, the protagonist is expected to honor and value her power nonetheless, as well as to experience her as attractive.
The Good Mother is not only beneficent, life-sustaining, generous and ever-renewing of herself and the world around her, she is the other face of the Terrible Mother, who is relentless in exacting the death of those whose time has come in this aspect she appears as those weavers, the Fates, in Mediterranean and Eastern European folktales. As Terrible Mother, she is not merely cold but awful in her destructiveness. Moreover, the folklore witch herself as with Baba Yaga is far from an entirely negative figure in traditional European folklore. Although she is terrifying, it is often her function to test and then gift a folklore hero.
This tradition does not honor her destructiveness, but accepts her power —and importantly, her necessity as an aspect of the Great Mother. There could not be a more classic case of such projection than that which precipitated the witch-burnings in a Europe which was both industrializing and forming cities, losing many of its more ancient ties to the land, represented psychically by the Great Mother archetype and concretely by traditional village midwives and herbalists.
This was a Europe, notably, undergoing a most conspicuous battle over shifting power and authority, on both the political and psychological levels. Here we meet it again. The festival was held, notably, at the mid-winter solstice, and one of its rites was the honoring of chaos through the suspension of social roles, so that men dressed like women and women, men. The festival of Koliada was a festival of birth; but the forces of darkness were those of the maternal womb; and in that sense, they were far from negative.
In her power, Koliada was dangerous and mysterious—and a bringer of wealth. Even as the Good Mother protects the fragility of new life which she gives birth to, the Terrible Mother may appear to attack those most vulnerable—not only the aged, but babies and children, who succumb so much more readily than adults to hunger and disease. In this double image of the Great Mother, we have an illustration of the complexity of any archetype—and of the psychological processes it represents. Just as the most vulnerable might be said to be swept away by nature, they are the very future nature also designs for us.
And folklore reminds us of this mysterious—and hopeful—illogic in the design of things. And in actuality, Kali does not want our children—nor our own lives. Kali is traditionally depicted as a dancer with eight arms: four of which give us things and four of which exact things from us. Her sword of truth and balance for this reason that one of her arms holds a head severs it.
It is the head of the ego that her larger truth cuts away. She simply wants the earth to be renewed, and that is not a thing that any of us can stand in the way of. In our intimacy with the Great Mother archetype, in turn, we give up our impulse to control the natural world we must face the fact of our own deaths. But it is also this which allows us to assume our place within that world. The myth of Kali has more to tell us about the Great Mother archetype—and about our own psychological processes.
Even as Kali brings us our deaths, she also brings us our passion for living. As Devouring Mother, Kali is also the double of Parvati, who represents perfect love and sexual passion. It is this passion that begets new life, even as it must destroy the old to make room for that new life to appear. Both the Good Mother Sati and the Terrible Mother are related in their attribute of passion ; in other mythological traditions, this aspect of the Great Mother is expressed by her wildness.