Cote D'Ivoire. Czech Republic. Dominican Republic. El Salvador. Faroe Islands. Hong Kong. New Zealand. North Korea. Northern Ireland. Papua New Guinea.
Puerto Rico. San Marino. South Africa. South America. South Korea.
Sri Lanka. Trinidad and Tobago. United Arab Emirates. His stories remain gripping to this day. Who's on board this year? Renowned pianist Hannes Westhoff is about to celebrate his 70th birthday. Along for the ride are his three sons and his ex-wife from Paris. The celebration devolves into a slinging match where old scores are settled. More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW.
COM has chosen English as your language setting. COM in 30 languages. The actual manufacturing process is enhanced by CAM. It includes higher levels of automation, allowing workers to operate several multi-functional machines simultaneously. To achieve Quick Response, it is crucial to obtain digital information about all material flows and locations throughout the supply chain All units processed in the chain are equipped with a barcode that identifies them and feeds information about the unit into a central data system. This information can be manifold and range from type to location to payment status.
It uses radio transmitters instead of barcodes. In the fashion supply chain it serves a similar purpose as Barcoding, but has significantly higher performance, automation and capability This can enormously facilitate material flow. Incoming shipments can be scanned, checked against purchase orders and paid within seconds. Discrepancies between order and shipment are easily identified. The immense quickening of such processes reduces lead times, which in itself already enhances responsiveness.
Responsiveness can be further improved by making real-time sales data available by sophisticated EDI systems. It helps achieving Quick Response in two ways. EDI can be used to effectively forecast sales, plan replenishment and accelerate order fulfilment Sales are forecasted using point of sale data. The single stock-keeping-unit SKU with all its relevant information is captured by Barcoding or RFID and fed to an electronic data system which estimates sales, computes demand for replenishment and sends an order directly to the manufacturing part of the supply chain.
Once the replenishment order is sent upstream to manufacturing and produced, EDI systems accelerate order fulfilment from factory to point of sale. All necessary processing can be handled by EDI systems, including shipping notice, invoice and payment. Advanced EDI systems in the field of container logistics 27 make it even possible to transport the merchandise directly from the factory to the sales floor without further handling Customer related EDI systems receive and process data from downstream the supply chain.
Applications can include processing point of sale data, computing sales forecasts, receiving orders as well as sending shipping notices and order affirmations. Supplier related EDI systems work upstream and can be used to send orders and track deliveries, as well as to receive information for production planning and inventory control This has been rather uncommon in the apparel industry before the emerging of Quick Response.
To be effective, EDI systems have to be able to communicate in both directions. The involved supply chain partners have to agree on a uniform data structure Instead of placing large orders well in advance, the retailer now places smaller orders throughout the season. He has to rely on the manufacturer to fulfil these orders on relatively short notice. Otherwise he runs out of stock.
To effectively calculate replenishment needs, a common variable model has to be developed. A lot of trust is required between the parties. The forecasting model is fed by detailed point of sale data. Before Quick Response, such data normally did not leave the retailing business. The implementation of order fulfilment directly from factory to point of sale by delivering floor-ready merchandise requires a lot of reliance and control by the retailer concerning consistency and scheduling.
It is evident that the introduction of EDI means a large investment into a retailer-supplier relationship. To pay off, these relationships must last longer than in the past. The partners have to assure stability by keeping the relationship fair and beneficial for both. Fully and partially implemented relationships between vendor and retailer are developing rapidly as a result of the widespread use of Quick Response systems Since Quick Response comprises a great variety of components, it is important to first analyse how intensively they are in use.
A survey on the use of Quick Response components 29 in manufacturing and retail exposes large discrepancies. While 84 per cent of Quick Response users employ electronic point of sale equipment, only 13 per cent use automatic demand forecast. When discussing performance impacts of Quick Response systems one has to keep in mind the great heterogeneities among practical users.
Fisher and Rahman modelled a Quick Response system that emphasizes on the importance of replenishment within an on-going sales period. After observing the first 20 per cent of a sales period, forecast accuracy for the rest will be between 80 and 90 per cent in a normally very volatile sales environment. Profit was expected to increase by 60 to per cent. These findings were confirmed by the application to Sport Obermeyer, an apparel company specialized in seasonal sports fashion 7.
Perry et al. Results were consistently positive in all areas.
The percentage of orders arriving by due date nearly doubled from 53 to 93 per cent. Inventory turnover and percentage of business with the immediate customer doubled as well Quick Response is not a separate strategy to agile supply chain design or responsive sourcing decisions. In fact it emerged from these supply chain strategies that aim at responsiveness as a means to tackle the challenges of the fashion market. This chapter described the focus and development of supply chain strategies into Fast Fashion. It explained how Fast Fashion gives answers to the challenges that are natural to the fashion business.
Responsiveness proved to be the key concept behind Fast Fashion. Because of the focus on responsive supply chain strategies two important factors of Fast Fashion were not discussed in detail: the product perspective and the impact of integration. Zara is the main brand of the Spanish Inditex Corporation and one of the global market leaders in fashion. It is regarded as one of the most radical champions of the Fast Fashion concept. In the chapter above the need for close interaction throughout the supply chain became evident when discussing Fast Fashion.
The entire company is designed according to that principle It possesses a supply chain with a level of integration that is unique in the industry. In contrast to almost all its competitors, Zara owns most of its manufacturing. Zara even owns 90 per cent of its stores 9. Design and distribution are centralized around the headquarters. Zara places more emphasis on quickness by vertical integration than on manufacturing efficiency This results in a great flexibility regarding product variety, amount and frequency.
To make full use of this immense responsiveness Zara plans its product accordingly and turns the industry challenges into competitive strength.
Zara rushes the wheel of fashion by turning products from solid commodities into fast-moving consumer items. Quickness is essential because Zara does not strive to create new trends, but follows emerging ones. Often Zara introduces these trends earlier to the market than the high fashion companies that create them Thus, Zara is able to skim first-mover advantage without taking the risk of being an innovator. Although having all the capabilities, Zara does not replenish sold-old items. They rather use the gathered information to refine upcoming product lines.
Consumers know that there is always something new in store. Zara stores are visited four times more often by the same consumers than stores of its competitors. A useful side-effect is less need for promotion, which results in very low advertising costs compared to industry average Like no other brand Zara represents successful Fast Fashion.
This is confirmed by financial data.
The number of Zara stores more than tripled from to , turnover almost quadrupled 36 Inditex reported a net income of two billion Euros in This thesis illustrated the main supply chain challenges of the fashion industry. These proved to be volatile demand, rapid perishability and long lead times. The concept of Fast Fashion offers a set of solutions to these issues. All of them emphasise responsiveness and agility. They involve the shift of manufacturing back to locations close to the actual markets, widespread availability and distribution of information and upkeep of reserve capacity.
Reviewed literature proves in theoretical models as well as practical studies that these sub-strategies can be very effective. The success of the Zara brand suggests that Fast Fashion is a seminal and profitable new concept in the fashion business. However, current research lacks financial facts that could be reliably correlated to Fast Fashion and its sub-strategies. Further research is needed to determine how exactly the implementation of Fast Fashion and its components affect the profit of an enterprise. What are the prerequisites for a successful transformation to Fast Fashion and what problems occur in practice?
What does it cost and when can one expect to break even? A concluding assessment of Fast Fashion will only be possible by close examination of its financial impact. Birtwistle, G. Cachon, G. Management Science 57 4 , pp. Caro, F. Working paper no. Choi, T-M. International Journal of Production Economics , pp. Christopher, M. The International Journal of Logistics Management 8 2 , pp. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 32 8 , pp.
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The New York Times, 03 Oct. Ferdows, K. Harvard Business Review 82 11 , pp. Fiorito, S. Fisher, M. Ghemawat, P. Case Paper Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston. Hines, T. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Inditex S. Annual Report Kincade, D. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 13 4 , pp. The Journal of the Textile Institute 84 2 , pp. Kumar, N. Business Strategy Review Summer , pp. Lachhwani, H.
Research Paper. Lee, H. Management Science 43 4 , pp.
Zar Juri German Edition. Therefore Juri Jura Jurisprudentia JJJ 1 German Edition, Tribunal do Jri Simplificado Portuguese Edition is the key book of O Grande. Der letzte russische Zar (German) Hardcover – April 1, 1st ed thus edition (April 1, ); Language: German; ISBN ; ISBN
Lee, T-W. Lowson, R. Mason-Jones, R. International Journal of Production Research 38 17 , pp. Mattila, H. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 6 4 , pp.
Those are non- transparent and therefore form the lower part of the iceberg beneath the waterline. But what the European Commission proposed to you is just not that: a solution. On the first day of the cold spring of two events occur, not comparable in importance: fireman Fedya Aramyshev is arrested and "the greatest leader of all times and peoples" Josef Stalin is found lying on the floor of his dacha Sign Studies and Semioethics Susan Petrilli. Costa Rica. Use the tab with the monitor icon.
Merkle, W. In: Riekhof, H. Naylor, B. International Journal of Production Economics 62 , pp. Pashigian, B. The American Economic Review 78 5 , pp. Perry, M. Riddle, E. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 3 2 , pp. Sen, A. Stengg, W. European Commission Enterprise Papers Sull, D.