Not only is it rendered infertile, it grows a larger abdomen to carry the barnacle's young, its gonads shrink, and it stops developing its fighting claws. Green-banded broodsac Leucochloridium paradoxum. If you see a snail with two beautiful eye stalks, pulsating with emerald- and olive-green stripes and dappled with charcoal grey flecks capped off with a maroon dab, be impressed.
You're not just looking at a pimped-out snail, you're looking at a snail infected with a parasitic flatworm. The green-banded broodsac first squirms its way into the stalks of the snail, so that they look like juicy, pulsing, brightly-coloured caterpillars. This is just the kind of snack nearby birds are in the mood for. Then the worm manipulates the snail's behaviour. In , Wanda Wesolowska and Tomasz Weslowski of Wroclaw University in Poland found that the infected snails behaved differently from their apparently non-infected counterparts.
They positioned themselves in more exposed and better-lit places, situated higher in the vegetation. This probably makes the snails more conspicuous for foraging birds. View image of Spotted lady beetles carrying ladybird parasite cocoons Credit: Mathieu B.
Ladybird parasite Dinocampus coccinellae. This wasp needs a host that will protect its eggs from potential predators. So what better bodyguard than an insect with markings that suggest danger? Ladybirds may seem like the stuff of cartoons and cute lunchboxes, but they can take care of themselves. When disturbed they emit a disgusting poison, and their hard shell with its bright red and black spots warns off predators. But they don't stand a chance against the parasitic wasp, which leaves behind a single egg with one sting. After the wasp egg hatches, the larva chews through the ladybird's internal tissues before bursting through the abdomen to spin a cocoon between its legs.
The ladybird is now a "bodyguard", standing guard over the cocoon. Still alive despite everything, it will thrash and twitch its limbs if a predator approaches. It's not clear why it behaves like this, but it may be triggered by venom left by the larva. Rather unexpectedly, a study found that a quarter of the zombie ladybirds survive the assault. Emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa. The emerald cockroach wasp has a metallic body that glows emerald with bright crimson markings on two of its legs. Found in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific islands, it is a beautiful insect, but pity the cockroach that crosses its path.
It is one-sixth the size of a roach, but that doesn't stop it. First it delivers a simple paralysing sting. Then it hijacks the roach's mind, injecting an elixir of neurotransmitters into its brain. This turns the roach into a helpless zombie.
After a quick suck of recharging roach blood, the wasp chews off the roach's antennae and leads it to its nest like a dog on a lead. There it lays its eggs on the roach's abdomen, and barricades it in with pebbles. But the hapless roach doesn't even try to escape, even though it physically could.
It just sits there submissively, as the wasp larva eats it alive. Finally the adult wasp bursts out of the cockroach's remains. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii. This single-celled creature is perhaps the most famous of all host-manipulating parasites, perhaps because it operates close to home. It mainly infects rats and mice, in order to be eaten by a cat so that it can reproduce.
Infected rats and mice lose their fear of the smell of cats, according to a study. Instead, they become attracted to a pheromone in the cats' urine. The animal becomes less likely to hide under the floorboards and more likely to sniff around its feline predators, putting the parasite on course for its ultimate destination: the cat's stomach. But it's less clear that the parasite affects human behaviour. So far this is only a correlation, which is far from conclusive. Nevertheless, Lafferty says: "my money is on cause and effect".
Toxoplasmosis is also unusually common in people with schizophrenia , but again it's not clear what that means or how significant it is. He adds that there are plenty of infected people that don't have schizophrenia, and plenty of people with schizophrenia who aren't infected. You might not think of a virus like rabies as a parasite, but to a biologist that's exactly what they are. Rabies is one of the most frightening parasites, because it seems to blur the line between humans and animals.
The virus is spread through saliva, usually from a scratch or bite. It makes animals — usually dogs and bats, and occasionally humans — more aggressive, compelling them to spread the virus through biting and scratching. Supposedly, it creates a fear of water, but this is a myth. Yes, that's the flu. In Chris Reiber of Binghamton University in New York and her colleagues found evidence that the influenza virus makes people more sociable.
They found that people given a flu vaccine interacted with significantly more people, and in significantly larger groups, in the 48 hours after being exposed, compared with the 48 hours before. The infected hosts were more likely to head out to bars and parties. It's only one study, and quite a small one, but it does make a certain sinister sense. Special financing available. Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc.
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Oh no! Often wrong. I was fully invested, entirely immersed, and my mind was running wild with speculation. View image of Spotted lady beetles carrying ladybird parasite cocoons Credit: Mathieu B. We are not able to clarify on stock availability as this information is not provided to us by the merchant. I highly recommend to all fiction lovers who enjoy a good mystery
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