Consol ·3· (Catalan Edition)

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Table to store results of subproblems. Initialize first two values in table. Fill entries in catalan[] using recursive formula. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] Description Cal Consol, c. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license:.

For foreign or cultivated species determination we followed [ 54 , 55 ]. Data collected were introduced and analysed using a database we had designed [ 56 ] to ensure an organized pool of the gathered information from interviews. This permitted the standardisation of data entry and further analysis. This database has been designed as an open source interface, a constantly growing platform for ethnobotanical data collected within Catalan-speaking territories.

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Technical characteristics of the database are a MySQL server, read on php format and data exported as csv. With comparison intentions, we made an analysis of the coincidences and the degree of novelty between our own data and data from bibliography on ethnoveterinary plant uses in different areas see the literature quoted in the introduction, especially [ 27 ], which constitutes a checklist of world ethnoveterinary plants.

Also, the Jaccard's similarity index [ 60 ] has been calculated from the matrix of all use reports for the four areas using R software [ 61 ], and its visualisation has been designed as a PCA principal component analysis plot. This plot is complementary to a 4-term Venn diagram [ 62 ] that compares the number of plant species shared one-to-one and by groups among studied territories.

Descriptive statistics including rank, mean, and standard deviation, among other parameters have been calculated for all the studied variables. In the Catalan and Balearic areas studied, 97 plant species taxa to the levels of subspecies and variety; 49 in AE, 49 in AT, 11 in FO, 17 in MA have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. Table 1 presents the plants recorded, grouped in alphabetical order of genera, with indication of scientific and local Catalan names, herbarium voucher number, botanical family, part used, pharmaceutical form, administration way, and veterinary and human uses.

Table 2 summarizes numerical information on the informants and the territories studied, the plants used, reports, local names, families and related data, and some quantitative ethnobotany indexes calculated for these plant uses in the areas prospected. Plants with veterinary medicinal uses claimed in the areas studied. General data on the territories studied, data concerning ethnoveterinary and related aspects, and ethnobotanical indexes.

Vigo pers. This paper being specifically devoted to medicinal uses, we did not consider all feed plants as having an ethnoveterinary application. Anyway they, too, contribute to animal health, and in many cases the informants attribute them with medicinal properties complementary to the nutritional effect. These plants fit within the category of folk functional foods, proposed by Rigat et al. As Pearson [ 15 ] remarked, there is a frequent possible confusion between feed and drug in ethnoveterinary.

Lluís Domènech i Montaner

The number of veterinary plant taxa is intermediate between those recorded in the two precedent investigations on this subject in the Catalan cultural area 89 in Montseny [ 31 ], in Pallars, Pyrenees [ 36 ]. It also occupies a medium position in a ranking going from 36 to taxa used for animal health care in European, African, Asian, and American territories [ 12 , 18 , 19 , 22 , 23 , 33 — 35 ]. In fact, it is not far from the average of the data contained in the 10 studies reported in the preceding lines The big differences among plant number in these areas may be attributed, apart from geographical and possible cultural facts, to the different extension of the territories prospected from small communities to entire countries.

In any case, we can consider the number of plant taxa reported in the present study as rather high, taking into account the decrease in folk animal health practices experienced in industrialised areas [ 1 ]. The ten most reported plants were Tanacetum parthenium 24 use reports , Parietaria officinalis 15 , Ranunculus parnassifolius 14 , Meum athamanticum 13 , Olea europaea 13 , Quercus ilex 12 , Ruta chalepensis 12 , Sambucus nigra 10 , Thymus vulgaris 10 , and Malva sylvestris 9.

Among these plants, there are some of the most reported also in other Mediterranean territories, especially Malva sylvestris , Parietaria officinalis , Ruta chalepensis , Sambucus nigra , and Thymus vulgaris [ 18 , 30 , 31 , 33 , 35 , 36 ]. An originality of this study is the report in top position in the ranking of Meum athamanticum and Ranunculus parnassifolius. These two central European high mountain plants [ 53 ], reported, respectively, for the second and first time in veterinary see Section 3. Another high mountain Ranunculus species R.

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It is worth mentioning also the plant occupying the 11th position in our list as per number of reports, Eryngium campestre. This plant, only reported in veterinary to date with the same use in another Catalan region [ 31 ], and with different uses in Andalusia [ 34 ] and Aragon [ 63 ], is widely employed in two of the areas prospected AE, AT as an antiophidian. In addition, another species of the same genus E. These two taxa were not recorded as another congeneric one, E. The families containing more taxa with claimed veterinary uses are Lamiaceae 10 taxa , Asteraceae 9 , Apiaceae 6 , Liliaceae 6 , Pinaceae 6 , and Crassulaceae 5.

Some of them Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae are at the same time large families and typically abundant in Mediterranean areas, and they are among the more represented families in most ethnobotanical works in this biogeographical region [ 66 ] and references therein. Another one, Pinaceae, not so big in terms of number of taxa, is landscape dominating in significant parts of the studied areas. All these families but one Crassulaceae are among the top ten in the recent world inventory of veterinary ethnobotany [ 27 ]. Most of these families are coincidental with the main ones appearing in other studies in the Catalan linguistic area [ 31 , 36 ], as well as in other Iberian [ 33 — 35 ] and other Mediterranean [ 18 , 30 ] territories.

In an area within Argentina, a great distance from those here studied, the cosmopolitan families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are coincidental as some of the most reported ones, but others, such as Verbenaceae and Zygophyllaceae, make a difference [ 23 ]. Similarly, in a South African region Asteraceae also occupy a preeminent place, but not Lamiaceae, whereas Capparaceae and Euphorbiaceae are particularly relevant [ 19 ], contrarily to the currently considered area. More differential families may be recognized in a study performed in an Indian territory, where even the Asteraceae do not appear and the Lamiaceae are only represented by one report among results given for 17 families [ 17 ].

This predominance as more reported families of those large and with many representatives in the flora of the area considered agrees with the statement of Johns et al. We could also verify this point in many works on folk plant uses in human medicine [ 68 ] and references therein. Of course, the presence of well-known medicinal plants in all these particularly relevant families goes in the same sense. The Crassulaceae, located in position 23 in this catalogue and with only 39 taxa present in Catalan language territories an area much larger than the one we cover [ 54 ], constitute a particularity of the studied zone.

In this section, graphical information and descriptive statistics are presented in order to give a detailed interpretation of the comparison among prospected territories. On the one hand, and according to the 4-area Venn diagram of Figure 2 , only two species in the very centre of the graph have been cited in all the territories; these are Olea europaea var. Meanwhile, Mallorca appears in the crossroad in between the three other areas, and nearly half of all the species cited by Mallorcans 9 are different from the species of the other places studied.

Notwithstanding, there are 8 plant species cited in Mallorca uniformly distributed among the rest of the areas. Venn's diagram showing the coincidences in plant species used in the four territories studied. See Figure 1 caption for abbreviations. On the other hand, if we look at the PCA plot referring similarities between use reports Figure 3 , we also find a convergence zone where several use reports from the four areas coincide.

The condensation of Mallorcan data at this point could be explained due to the eight largely distributed species above mentioned, as well as the data from Formentera, which appear close to this area for sharing many of its taxa with the other regions. Moreover, the AE data spread distribution of the PCA plot, as opposed to AT, may be explained because many use reports are cited by a unique informant, so that the similarity line is upward deflected. In short, PCA plot reveals that, considering not only plant species but UR, islands have ethnobotanical similarities and there are shared UR citations with the four regions considered in the study.

Principal component plot showing the similarities between use reports in the four studied territories. The comparison of ethnoveterinary data from the four areas leads us to consider that the common heritage of plant uses and specifically for veterinary treatments in the present work throughout the Catalan-speaking territories is nuanced by local features. It has to be emphasized that this is the first cross-regional ethnobotanical comparison made up with Catalan data.

Similarly to other comparative studies using coordinated methodology and dealing with ethnobotanical data [ 18 , 68 , 69 ], it is very difficult to assure that there is a standard traditional veterinary knowledge among the four areas without contemplating floristic, bioclimatic and sociohistorical aspects. A certain number of plant species and plant uses are new or very scarcely previously reported in ethnoveterinary.

We have first compared our results with a recent world catalogue of plants used in this field [ 27 ], built with information from publications and including data on taxa at specific or subspecific levels, genera and families. From this comparison, we found that 42 species and one subspecies, 17 genera and five families do not appear in this inventory and must thus be considered new or very scarcely reported as useful in veterinary.

In addition, 27 taxa are also not very commonly used in veterinary, since they were reported only once in the world inventory, 17 of them with data coming from a previous work of our team in Montseny [ 31 ], an area belonging to the same cultural community of the currently considered zones.

These new or rarely recorded taxa have been crossed with a review of plants used in ethnoveterinary in Italy [ 30 ], not quoted in [ 27 ] , containing information on species or infraspecific taxa belonging to 71 families. In this review, eight species, six genera, and two families not listed in [ 27 ] appeared, as well as six of the species cited only once.

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Thus, the novelties contributed in the present paper are 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families, plus 21 species only mentioned once. Irrespective of the wide reach of the two reviews considered, it is sure that the amount of new taxa could be reduced with a still more comprehensive literature cross e.

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Nonetheless, we believe that in any case the number of taxa of different taxonomic level not, or very rarely, previously reported as used in veterinary is significant. The comparatively small amount of work on ethnoveterinary in Europe could contribute to explain this high level of new information. A summary of the top ten used plant parts, preparation and administration forms, is graphically represented in Figure 4.

This figure also includes the ten most cited veterinary use categories, which are compared to human medical indications in Section 3. The plant parts most commonly used for veterinary remedies preparation, concerning the general overview of the four areas, are aerial parts leaves and stems; 71 reports , flowered aerial parts 44 reports , fruits 26 reports , roots 25 reports , and leaves 19 reports.

However, it is outstanding that only aerial parts and leaves are represented in the four areas, meaning that leaves alone, or together with the stems in which they are inserted are the most popular organ in terms of geographical extension. These numbers do not differ much from other ethnoveterinary studies [ 31 , 33 — 35 ] neither do they from human ethnopharmacological works for the same areas [ 66 , 71 , 72 ], where aerial parts and leaves are at the top of list of plant part analysis.

The percentage of internal administration form Tisanes are not difficult to prepare but, after tisane, we count the direct ingestion 34 reports and direct application 31 reports , which are even easier ways to treat animals most of them are grass-eating domestic animals. With particular regard to excipients—apart from water—olive oil has to be counted as the most important in the four areas. The use of olive oil ointments for external administration appears in a fourth place in the preparation classification, and it is especially formulated as vulnerary, cicatrizing, and against dermatologic ailments.

Summary of the top ten used plant parts, preparation and administration forms, and of the top ten veterinary uses in the four territories studied. The figures in the graphics mean number of use reports. The most cited veterinary use category as an absolute value for all the territories altogether is the postpartum coadjuvant. However, this is not a significant set since there are 42 reports out of 46 that have been collected for the AT area. For the whole area prospection, the most representative veterinary indication is the antidiarrhoeal.

Indeed, plants aimed to treat gastrointestinal disorders are frequently on the top of the latest ethnoveterinary usage lists [ 23 , 34 , 35 ]. Top veterinary uses concerning every study territory separately are diverse enough: vulnerary for AE, postpartum coadjuvant for AT, egg calcifier for FO, and insect repellent for MA.

The reason of these differences may lie on the type of livestock treated; for example, results from Mallorca have a socioeconomic bias on sheep treatment since these animals have historically been the first islander meat resource, well ahead of the pig [ 73 ]. The treatment of sheep against fly larvae explains that many plant citations have been made for insect repellent. The ethnoveterinaricity index EvI , which we have defined here adapting the classical ethnobotanicity index to include only use reports of plants concerning animal health, is low in all the studied areas.

It oscillates between 0. General ethnobotanicity indices or indices referring to all medicinal plant uses in Mediterranean territories oscillate between 0. The percentage of plants used in veterinary is, logically and in all cases, lower than general ethnobotanicity indices. In the present case, it is also lower than in the two previous reports on Catalan ethnoveterinary 0. The mean informant consensus factor F IC considering the four areas studied is 0. This index, with the maximum value of 1, shows the consistency of uses among the informants of a given territory, and thus it is one of the indicators of reliability for such uses.

The values of the Catalonian areas are close to that from Montseny, 0. In general, F IC values for ethnoveterinary are clearly lower than those of works on human medicinal uses in the same territories AE 0. This suggests a preeminence of human medicine over veterinary, at least in current times, in the society prospected: veterinary uses are less homogeneous and consistent that human medical ones, since they are in fact perceived nowadays as less relevant, less necessary. In any case, it is interesting to remark that the ethnoveterinary F IC s are proportional to the general for all medicinal plant uses ones in each territory, confirming the above-described fact.

Most works on ethnobotany of veterinarian plants do not mention F IC values. The ones reported for eight zones of Navarra Western Pyrenees, Spain range from 0 in the main cities areas to 0. These values are slightly lower, but similar to those recorded in the present paper; in Navarra, the F IC for general medical ethnobotany is also higher than the veterinary one 0.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that F IC of the whole territory studied 0.

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The latter were recorded in countries where folk medicinal plant knowledge is considered relevant and currently in use. To summarize, there is not a very pronounced agreement in ethnoveterinary plant uses, but neither it is extremely low, when taking into account the indicative figures from other territories and the current relevance of domestic animals along with the modern way to address their health troubles. Another way to assess the relevance of folk plant uses is the recently described cultural importance index CI, [ 59 ].

The global values of this index are low in the areas prospected Table 1 , ranging from 0. This is not surprising taking into account that in each territory, and in all of them together, the number of plants claimed as useful is high, and for many of them a scarce number of reports has been collected. In addition, even the interviewees who did not report any veterinary use are counted. The CI ranges per area, also calculated on the basis of all informants, not only those having provided veterinarian information, are slightly or clearly—depending on the cases—higher: 0.

Just to give an example of the different CI values in a veterinary and in a human medicinal ethnobotanical survey, Santolina chamaecyparissus in MA has 0. This index was rather designed to highlight the most relevant plants used for a specific purpose in a particular cultural area; this is why the most reported plants bear the larger indices.

This index assesses the relevance of a plant in a culture. Here culture can be understood either in its broad sense in our case, the Catalan one, common to all studied areas or in its restricted sense, distinguishing in the present case high mountain AT , medium mountain and plain AE and insular FO, MA cultures. All these cultures in a more restricted sense are shaped on the one hand by belonging to a linguistic community and on the other hand by geographical and socioeconomic conditions: as stated above Section 3. The top ten plants regarding report number, quoted in the first paragraphs Section 3 , have, logically, the highest CIs in the whole area studied, but some plants not present in this list bear the highest CIs in particular territories, such as Aeonium arboreum FO , Allium sativum , and Santolina chamaecyparissus MA.

The description of this index is recent, and so very few papers include it in their analyses. Nevertheless, an ethnoveterinary study of an Iberian area, Arribes del Duero Salamanca, Western Spain , also shows a high number of low CIs with a minimum value of 0. Table 1 shows the agreements between veterinary and human medicinal plant uses in the areas studied, meaning the strict coincidence not only of the plant employed but of its claimed properties as well. The number of total human and veterinary medicine uses is presented in Table 2.

Table 2 shows that the number of plants reported to be useful in veterinary medicine is dramatically low as compared with that of those indicated to be used in human medicine in the same territories Yet the proportion of informants who reported veterinary uses is low, also in every area prospected absolute figures in Table 2 ; Facing this situation, the question arises as to whether it could be the consequence of a bias in data recording.

The Catalan Language

It is true that when talking about medicinal plants one of the main focuses in our ethnobotanical interviews , it is implicitly clear for both interviewers and interviewees that human medicinal uses have to be addressed, whereas the reference to veterinary uses is not so evident. So, we must admit a slight weight of this factor in this difference between human and animal medicinal plant use reports.

Nevertheless, in many cases in which the point of ethnoveterinary uses is explicitly present in the conversations, this does not significantly increase the information on animal health care. In addition, the number of veterinary plants recorded in the areas prospected is not lower than those published for other studies in the same biogeographical region [ 18 , 31 , 33 — 36 ].

Moreover, We believe that the decline in human dependence on domestic animals in so-called western societies explains basically the unbalance between both kinds of medicinal plant uses. In this sense, it is interesting to remark that AT the territory studied with a larger proportion of informants supplying ethnoveterinary information and of veterinary uses recorded is a high mountain area in which domestic animals still play a significant role, at least more than in the other places.

In any case, the veterinary use reports of taxa in the four areas considered constitute a large therapeutic corpus, with a not insignificant part in agreement with human medicinal uses also claimed by the informants. The proportion of coincidental human and animal plant-use categories in all the studied areas is In terms of number of reports of the same use of a plant in human and animal health, the figures are also high Table 2 , representing a Again, AT is the territory with the highest coincidence in use categories and reports, this indicating a still important degree of validity of veterinary practices in this area since the more animal health care uses persist, the more they may coincide with those for human health troubles, in general more operative and easily recalled.

In most cases, the plants for which human medicine reports are coincidental with veterinary ones are among the most commonly used to address people's ailments. As an example, in MA, four of the plants so considered Allium sativum , Citrus limon , Herniaria hirsuta , and Santolina chamaecyparissus appear in the list of the top five medicinal species in the area.

In these cases plant preparations for animals are often similar to those for humans [ 74 ], showing on the one hand how important animals were in times gone by and on the other hand the proximity of veterinary and human medicine and so the relevance of ethnoveterinary data as evidences for phytotherapy in general. In AE the panorama is similar present data and [ 66 ] to one of the top species Allium sativum coincidental with MA.

Two use categories in which there is a convergence of veterinary and human medical uses are gastrointestinal and skin troubles. On the one hand, digestive, antidiarrhoeal, gastrointestinal antialgic and anti-inflammatory are uses corresponding to usually nonsevere chronic illnesses very often treated with folk phytotherapeutic remedies [ 34 , 66 ] and references therein.

On the other hand, skin affections may also be nonsevere troubles such as warts and have a particular incidence in rural societies, in people dealing with agricultural and livestock-raising activities wounds and some kinds of skin infections , this kind of affection being almost as common in humans as in the animals they take care of. Conversely, a use category that was once shared by people and domestic animals, labour and postlabour coadjuvant, is now almost exclusively restricted to animals, basically cows.

The explanation is evident: the medical assistance in labour has increased dramatically more in human beings than in livestock, apart from the fact that many labour coadjuvants may have abortive effects if used in a nonadequate manner or period of time, and there is a higher vigilance of this aspect in people than in domestic animals.

Our research in four European areas has verified that, as Mathias et al. The collection of information on ethnobotanical uses of plants in veterinary medicine, as done in the present work, is the first step of the process that can permit the passage from folk, often small-scale, uses to industrial or at least medium-scale applications.

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Irrespective of the wide reach of the two reviews considered, it is sure that the amount of new taxa could be reduced with a still more comprehensive literature cross e. Bryonia cretica L. Crassulaceae, BCN A day at the races: A study of IQ, expertise, and cognitive complexity. Saxifraga paniculata Mill. Starting with a minimal initial description, the survey form has been progressively enriched with such elements as errors in foliation or quire signatures, variants in the title page or colophon, etc.

It is undoubtedly one of the beneficial and appropriate ethnoveterinary interventions that, in words of Wanzala et al. Muhammad et al.

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Additionally, we stress that recording these data is already in itself a part of this validation, since it provides scientific evidence of plant uses, after which, chemical, pharmacological, and other issues should be addressed. Some examples of legislation and herbal products development in western Europe [ 82 ] make us believe that further ethnobotanical studies in the field of veterinary are needed, followed by a coordination with different stakeholders livestock raisers, veterinary surgeons, chemists, health policy managers and deciders, pharmaceutical firms, among others in order to integrate ethnoveterinary knowledge—as we have seen, closely related to human ethnomedicinal one—in health policies.

As for all domains of ethnobiology, the inventory of ethnoveterinary practices is urgent, mostly in industrialised countries. Concerning specifically animal health care, in relatively few years we have passed, at least in southwestern Europe, from a lifestyle in which, according to a popular saying, the illness of the mule was considered worse for a rural family than a trouble in a member of the family to a situation of almost no dependence on domestic animals and from the practical absence of veterinary doctors and industrial medicines to the inverse situation even in the smaller population nuclei.

The popular saying regarding the mule, obviously an exaggeration, can still be heard amongst elderly people in the regions prospected, but today the situation is different. Thus, a certain amount of ethnoveterinary knowledge in the areas described is no longer in practice and must be collected—not only as a cultural and biological heritage, but also as possible sources for new drugs for animals and humans—before it is too late. First of all the authors thank all the informants, who wanted to share with them their considerable and often profound knowledge of plant uses and, in general, biodiversity management.

Campanera, Universitat de Barcelona, is thanked for his support in statistical questions, Professor J.