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Because we are currently writing the grammar, and work progresses chapter by chapter, the table of contents is yet incomplete. The Table of Contents references, near the end, some chapters of a short, though defective, conversational grammar, in which we color the necessary corrections. We believe the so marked grammar pages might be instructive to students of German. Links connect to appropriate places in our comprehensive grammar. The high level of expertise and experience of Ectaco linguists, programmers, designers and engineers have resulted in the creation of dictionaries with modern design, a high-quality linguistic bases and the widest range of features.

German-English Online Dictionary www. Langenscheidt's New College English Dictionary www. An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of the words of a compound term. That is rectangular plates printed black on white. For example, the "parking prohibited" sign may have an addition stating the pertinent times. Some frequently seen words are tabulated in four languages below.

In him the most intense contradictions are found.

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Granger, S. Bechtel, M. West, J. The first letter of a name should be given as capital. Other sales include Norway, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. The winners are picked by the staff of the country's bookstores.

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By Katrin Elger and Asia Haidar more Among the more than 60 different international versions, some, like Scholastic's, have covers that carry the name "Potter" with a flash on the P, the logo used by Warner Brothers for the film, thus emphasising the brand "Potter" and establishing a link between the books and the large number of merchandise items, whereas Bloomsbury's titles employ the "P" in ordinary shape and thus abstain from the visual connection between book, merchandise products, and films. Arthur A. Levine, who published the US edition of Harry Potter, has been heavily criticized for the linguistic changes, which markedly decrease in the fourth volume, presumably because by then, the text had risen to canonical status.

Byatt was expected to accept a substantial rewriting of her novel Possession for publication in the US, but after she had won the Booker Prize, she managed to retain most of the text in its original shape. Surely, these children would be able to cope with crumpets, jumpers, and comprehensive schools? If, for British readers of American books, which are not changed, the use of American vocabulary opens new worlds, there is no reason why American children should not profit from a similar experience, especially as one function of reading is the continuous expansion of vocabulary.

The culture war continues into the film version, for which Steven Spielberg was at first considered as director, a task which he said he declined since there was "no challenge" in it, 37 yet Smith's biography states that Rowling and Spielberg "did not see eye to eye about bringing Harry Potter to the screen.

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And yet another culture throws its dark shadows: In the US in particular, Christian parents seem to be worried about the promotion of witchcraft and magic as the ultimate threat to their children. As Harry Potter has been translated into 67 languages, including Latin and Greek but also languages spoken by small linguistic communities such as Hungarian and Basque, the books are a good example to illustrate current translation issues.

A translation has to convey the sense of place of the source language and work creatively with the neologisms, likewise imitate plays on words in the target language. The balance between the necessity to familiarise contexts on the one hand and the need to keep the Potter books British on the other hand proves sometimes to be rather difficult. In early years, the German, French, and Spanish translations represented about 10 percent of the overall sales in the series, 45 yet that, as Nancy K. Jentsch claims, the German translation sold better than the French and Spanish translation combined, is in all likelihood due to its quality.

Dumbledore, who is on a more familiar footing with Harry, addresses him with "tu. Klaus Fritz's German translation keeps most places and characters' names as they appear and thus leads the child reader into distinctly British settings, whereas the French translation changes them, thereby toning down Britishness. Likewise, the protagonists' names change: Draco Malfoy becomes Drago Malefoy, Snape becomes Rogue literally "arrogant" , and the four houses obtain new names, too, for example "Slytherin," which has a serpent for its symbol, is fittingly called "Serpentard.

When, in the fourth sequel, French pupils visit, the cultural frictions must be difficult to comprehend for the reader of the French translation. Occasionally, the French translation adds a short section of dialogue, for example to explain the meaning of "prefect.

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Fritz in particular has devoted much care to the translation of sporting vocabulary, for example rendering the "Cleansweep Seven," one type of broom, as "Sauberwisch Sieben. In the French version, the sporting equipment is translated with far less consistency. The importance of the sporting scenes is obvious from the following anecdote: When Rowling first submitted the manuscript, she had very little rewriting to do - with a few exceptions: She was asked to increase the information on Quidditch by explaining the rules because this sport would appeal to boys in particular.

For example, in a Chinese version of the final volume was released a few weeks prior to Rowling's own book. Several imitations and translations with titles like "Harry Potter and the Chinese Empire," "Harry Potter and the Big Funnel," or "Harry Potter and the Showdown" have been published in China, even with the imprint of major publishers, who said that they had no knowledge about them. The new trade agreement TRIPS, mandatory for all member countries of the WTO, imposes legally binding standards regarding intellectual property, yet the legal disputes are dealt with in national courts so that an author has take legal action in the trespasser's own country, which may not feasible for writers whose books sell less well than Rowling's.

Hence, the global marketing of books raises not only the issue of copyright but also the question of its enforceability. When no-name articles such as socks or T-shirts are provided with logos, the image transfer from a well-known book or film is intended to evoke a positive reaction resulting in the decision to make a purchase: a Beatrix Potter calendar, Winnie-the-Pooh cereal, etc. While merchandising aims to make money quickly after the release of a book or a film because the craze for a character rarely lasts long, The Lord of the Rings can be cited as an exception to this rule because products, ranging from posters and calendars to puzzles, had been sold for decades before the release of Peter Jackson's films.

Although the items are frequently overprized in comparison with no-name articles, children, parents, or adult collectors will not necessarily be discouraged because brand names denote quality. When Warner Brothers bought the licensing rights for Harry Potter and sold the rights to a large number of international partners, among them Coca-Cola, Lego, Hasbo, Mattel, and many others, Rowling retained some control and, for example, demanded that no Harry Potter character could be shown drinking Coca-Cola.

The marketing machine has produced toys action figures, Lego, broomsticks, wands , clothes T-shirts, scarves, costumes , computer games, stationery pens, notebooks, stickers, greeting cards, calendars , sweets, and a lot of money. Producers of Harry merchandise are obliged to adhere to style guides provided by Warner Brothers, which aim to ensure uniform appearance: These guides prescribe the main characters' faces and postures, colour schemes, icons like the Hogwarts crests, or the appearance of buildings.

All items must be approved before they can go into production and on sale. The most recent developments in the Harryverse are an exhibition in Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry and plans for a theme park in Orlando, scheduled to open in and respectively. Even though Christopher Little Agency discourages companion books by other writers and books accompanying the films, a number of additional print products have been released: magazines about the films, parodies, lists of vocabulary, teaching aids, glossaries. The recent legal battle about Steven Vander Ark's projected dictionary that grew out of a website shows that author and publisher are willing to fight for their share of the market.

At the very centre of all the accompanying products are the films with renowned British actors, a veritable Who's Who of British cinema and largely faithful to the books, since Rowling retained a lot of influence over the production. If the books and films have turned out to be money-spinners, the DVDs are economically even more rewarding. When the VHS tape was dethroned a few years ago, it was rapidly replaced by the financially much more attractive DVD, which is faster as well as easier to produce and delivers more quality. The function of the two-DVD version, usually released after the one-DVD version, is the extension of the product's or brand's life-cycle.

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Such bonus DVDs, which document the production, show interviews with the actors, and, in the case of the Potter films, convey the message that everyone on the film set is part of one big happy family, are a fairly recent invention, for which the material released with The Lord of the Rings set standards both in terms of quality and of quantity.

The Quidditch scenes in the film, the fights with the dragon in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire , and the combat with Voldemort in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix all cater for the visual habits of children used to such computer games. If novels end on closure, such games allow extensions to the story with a certain amount of imagined agency. Even though, in the case of Harry Potter, the books are clearly the most sought-after items, it is noteworthy that merchandise products, even more so online fandom, increasingly question the primacy of print.

Among the functions of these websites are the collection and storage of information about the books, the author, and the films, and the inspiration of activities, ranging from discussions and role plays to creative writing. Pottermania is unthinkable without the flourishing internet fan communities as the large number of fan websites shows, some of which have even been awarded prizes by Rowling herself. Among the most poplar are "The Leaky Cauldron" www. Rowling herself maintains a website, "J. Rowling's Official Site" www. The publishers have been quick to respond to their fans' style of communication: Carlsen in Germany organised several online events by asking readers to vote on the next book's cover.

Marketing brands online is comparatively inexpensive and inspires consumers to spend a fairly large amount of time studying a new item. This led to the formation of a Potteresque group called DADA "Defense Against the Dark Arts" , which launched a campaign to create awareness of the way in which Warner Brothers communicated with online fans and at one stage even called for a boycott of all Harry goods. Fan fiction, which used to be published in magazines and has one root in the cult around Star Trek , often invites collective, shared writing, is never closed, and defies traditional notions of authorship and literary property.

Generally, the life of such websites and of the authorship it carries is fragile: As many websites praised in recent academic studies no longer exist, authorship of such digital fan texts is subject to conditions different from those experienced by an author whose works are "in print. Although the legal status of fan fiction is uncertain, fans in the United States can be defended by the concept of fair use.

WAYNE SHELTON 1

Users can also decide about which character they want to read or write online stories, which are never finished, since anyone can add comments and make changes. Several types of rewriting exist: Some fans develop marginal characters, others invent new characters such as the half-serpent Naga, magicked into existence by the digital writer Morea. Since the last volume ends after the "Battle of Hogwarts," followed only by a brief postscript set 19 years later, fans have written numerous texts about the days immediately after Voldemort's defeat. In imitation of Star Trek , some episodes deal with "the next generation," the major characters' children, whom Rowling's postscript introduces.

One favourite recurrent plot is a Romeo-and-Juliet type of love story between Harry's daughter Lily and Draco's son Scorpio. Most of these creative additions are fairly short, but longer texts, called "novels," exist, too. If many websites are maintained by teenage fans, some seem to be professionally run, especially those with ads. Kristin Thompson's study The Frodo Franchise cites the example of a Tolkien fan who made a lucrative arrangement with Amazon, receiving 15 percent of the profits from sales induced through a link on his site.

By revealing additional bits and pieces of information about her characters, for example, that Harry Potter chose the profession of auror posted on Rowling's own website , she skilfully plays her fans' game, since, being, after all, the author, she has more authority over her characters than anyone else but also expresses appreciation of her fans' need for continuation.

By defying the closure of the text and treating the stories as texts that can continue to be written, she inspires her fans' creativity and helps to undermine the distinction between author and reader, thus following a trend in digital writing described by Mark Poster, 76 albeit not at all times, as the Vander Ark case proves.

A website for the dangerously obsessive; my natural home.