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My Account. Government Relations. Practice Resources. Path to the ED. Emergency Nurse Project. ENA 50th Anniversary. My Account Welcome, useremail domain. The use of the Guide by non-US entities also presumes adherence to all regulations relevant to the humane care and use of laboratory animals applicable in those locations. The Guide also takes into account the U. Interpretation and application of these principles and the Guide require knowledge, expertise, experience, and professional judgment. Programs should be operated in accord with the Guide and relevant regulations, policies, and principles.
Also, institutions are encouraged to establish and periodically review written procedures to ensure consistent application of Guide standards. Supplemental information on various aspects of animal care and use is available in other publications prepared by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research ILAR and other organizations Appendix A. References in the Guide provide the reader with additional information that supports statements made in the Guide. In the absence of published literature, some information in the Guide is derived from currently accepted practice standards in laboratory animal science see Chapter 1.
The body of literature related to animal science and use of animals is constantly evolving, requiring Programs to remain current with the information and best practices. An effective Program requires clearly defined roles that align responsibility with regulatory and management authority.
The Guide endorses these concepts as important operating principles for all US and non-US animal care and use programs. Effective leadership in and collaboration among these three components, which not only oversee but also support animal users, are necessary Lowman ; Van Sluyters In addition, interactions with regulatory and funding agencies and accreditation organizations are an integral part of the Program.
Their roles fit in a defined organizational structure where the reporting relationships, authorities, and responsibilities of each are clearly defined and transparent. Together they establish policies and procedures, ensure regulatory compliance, monitor Program performance, and support high-quality science and humane animal use.
A Program that includes these elements and establishes a balance among them has the best chance of efficiently using resources while attaining the highest standards of animal well-being and scientific quality Bayne and Garnett ; Van Sluyters The attending veterinarian AV is responsible for the health and well-being of all laboratory animals used at the institution. The institution must provide the AV with sufficient authority, including access to all animals, and resources to manage the program of veterinary care.
The AV should oversee other aspects of animal care and use e. Attending veterinarian: The veterinarian responsible for the health and well-being of all laboratory animals used at the institution. Institutional mission, programmatic goals, including the nature of animal use at the institution, and Program size will determine whether full-time, part-time, or consultative veterinary services are needed. If a full-time veterinarian is not available on site, a consulting or part-time veterinarian should be available in visits at intervals appropriate to programmatic needs.
In such instances, there must be an individual with assigned responsibility for daily animal care and use and facility management. While institutions with large animal care and use programs may employ multiple veterinarians, the management of veterinary medicine, animal care, and facility operations by a single administrative unit is often an efficient mechanism to administer all aspects of the Program. These guidelines include veterinary access to all animals and their medical records, regular veterinary visits to facilities where animals are or may be housed or used, provisions for appropriate and competent clinical, preventive, and emergency veterinary care, and a system for legal animal procurement and transportation.
Other responsibilities of the AV are outlined in the Program Oversight section below and in later chapters. It should have sufficient authority and resources e. Interinstitutional collaboration has the potential to create ambiguities about responsibility for animal care and use. In cases of such collaboration involving animal use beyond animal transport , the participating institutions should have a formal written understanding e.
In addition, IACUCs from the participating institutions may choose to review protocols for the work being conducted.
The number and qualifications of personnel required to conduct and support a Program depend on several factors, including the type and size of the institution, the administrative structure for providing adequate animal care, the characteristics of the physical plant, the number and species of animals maintained, and the nature of the research, testing, teaching, and production activities. Institutions are responsible for providing appropriate resources to support personnel training Anderson , and the IACUC is responsible for providing oversight and for evaluating the effectiveness of the training program Foshay and Tinkey All Program personnel training should be documented.
Veterinarians providing broad Program direction should be trained or have relevant experience in laboratory animal facility administration and management. Depending on the scope of the Program, professionals with expertise in other specific areas may be needed—in, for example, facility design and renovation, human resource management, pathology of laboratory animals, comparative genomics, facility and equipment maintenance, diagnostic laboratory operations, and behavioral management.
Laboratory animal science and medicine are rapidly changing and evolving disciplines. The institution should provide opportunities and support for regular professional development and continuing education to ensure both that professional staff are knowledgeable about the latest practices and procedures and that laboratory animals receive high-quality care Colby et al.
According to the Program scope, personnel with expertise in various disciplines e. There are a number of options for training animal care personnel and technicians Pritt and Duffee Many colleges have accredited programs in veterinary technology AVMA ; most are 2-year programs that award Associate of Science degrees, some are 4-year programs that award Bachelor of Science degrees.
Nondegree training, via certification programs for laboratory animal technicians and technologists, is available from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science AALAS , and there are various commercially available training materials appropriate for self-guided study Appendix A. Personnel caring for laboratory animals should also regularly engage in continuing education activities and should be encouraged to participate in local and national laboratory animal science meetings and in other relevant professional organizations.
On-the-job training, supplemented with institution-sponsored discussion and training programs and reference materials applicable to their jobs and the species in their care, should be provided to each employee responsible for animal care Kreger The Research Team The institution should provide appropriate education and training to members of research teams—including principal investigators, study directors, research technicians, postdoctoral fellows, students, and visiting scientists—to ensure that they have the necessary knowledge and expertise for the specific animal procedures proposed and the species used Conarello and Shepard Training should be tailored to the particular needs of research groups; however, all research groups should receive training in animal care and use legislation, IACUC function, ethics of animal use and the concepts of the Three Rs, methods for reporting concerns about animal use, occupational health and safety issues pertaining to animal use, animal handling, aseptic surgical technique, anesthesia and analgesia, euthanasia, and other subjects, as required by statute.
Continuing education programs should be offered to reinforce training and provide updates that reflect changes in technology, legislation, and other relevant areas. Frequency of training opportunities should ensure that all animal users have adequate training before beginning animal work. Ongoing opportunities to enhance their understanding of animal care and use in science should also be provided.
For example, IACUC members may meet with animal care personnel and research teams; be provided access to relevant journals, materials, and web-based training; and be given opportunities to attend meetings or workshops. The nature of the OHSP will depend on the facility, research activities, hazards, and animal species involved. An effective OHSP requires coordination between the research program as represented by the investigator , the animal care and use Program as represented by the AV, IO, and IACUC , the environmental health and safety program, occupational health services, and administration e.
Establishment of a safety committee may facilitate communication and promote ongoing evaluation of health and safety in the workplace. In some cases there is a regulatory requirement for such a committee. Operational and day-to-day responsibility for safety in the workplace resides with the laboratory or facility supervisor e. Control and Prevention Strategies A comprehensive OHSP should include a hierarchy of control and prevention strategies that begins with the identification of hazards and the assessment of risk associated with those hazards. Managing risk involves the following steps: first, the appropriate design and operation of facilities and use of appropriate safety equipment engineering controls ; second, the development of processes and standard operating procedures SOPs; administrative controls ; and finally, the provision of appropriate personal protective equipment PPE for employees.
Managing risk using these strategies requires that personnel be trained, maintain good personal hygiene, be knowledgeable about the hazards in their work environment, understand the proper selection and use of equipment, follow established procedures, and use the PPE provided. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment The institutional OHSP should identify potential hazards in the work environment and conduct a critical assessment of the associated risks. An effective OHSP ensures that the risks associated with the experimental use of animals are identified and reduced to minimal and acceptable levels.
The attending veterinarian AV is responsible for the health and well-being of all laboratory animals used at the institution. Retrieved February 3, ENA's Emergency Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice is a landmark book that describes the competent level of behavior expected for the nurses practicing in the specialty of emergency nursing and explores the dynamic nature of the practice environment. Ontario: CCAC; Public entities, however, are not necessarily required to make each of their existing facilities accessible. Tillman P.
Hazard identification and risk assessment are ongoing processes that involve individuals qualified to assess dangers associated with the Program and implement commensurate safeguards. Health and safety specialists with knowledge in relevant disciplines should be involved in risk assessment and the development of procedures to manage such risks.
Potential hazards include experimental hazards such as biologic agents e. The risks associated with unusual experimental conditions such as those encountered in field studies or wildlife research should also be addressed. Other potential hazards—such as animal bites, exposure to allergens, chemical cleaning agents, wet floors, cage washers and other equipment, lifting, ladder use, and zoonoses—that are inherent in or intrinsic to animal use should be identified and evaluated. Once potential hazards have been identified, a critical ongoing assessment of the associated risks should be conducted to determine appropriate strategies to minimize or manage the risks.
The extent and level of participation of personnel in the OHSP should be based on the hazards posed by the animals and materials used the severity or seriousness of the hazard ; the exposure intensity, duration, and frequency prevalence of the hazard ; to some extent, the susceptibility e. Their design should preferentially use engineering controls and equipment to minimize exposure to anticipated hazards also see Chapter 5.
Because a high standard of personal cleanliness is essential, changing, washing, and showering facilities and supplies appropriate to the Program should be available. These design and safety features are based on the level of risk posed by the agents used. Special facilities and safety equipment may be needed to protect the animal care and investigative staff, other occupants of the facility, the public, animals, and the environment from exposure to hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents used in animal experimentation DHHS ; Frasier and Talka ; NIH When necessary, these facilities should be separated from other animal housing and support areas, research and clinical laboratories, and patient care facilities.
They should be appropriately identified and access to them limited to authorized personnel. Facilities, equipment, and procedures should also be designed, selected, and developed to reduce the possibility of physical injury or health risk to personnel NIOSH a. Engineering controls and equipment that address the risk of ergonomic injury in activities such as the lifting of heavy equipment or animals should be considered AVMA Those are also frequently used to limit or control personnel exposure to animal allergens Harrison ; Huerkamp et al.
The potential for repetitive motion injuries in animal facilities e. The selection of appropriate animal housing systems requires professional knowledge and judgment and depends on the nature of the hazards in question, the types of animals used, the limitations or capabilities of the facilities, and the design of the experiments. Experimental animals should be housed so that possibly contaminated food and bedding, feces, and urine can be handled in a controlled manner. Appropriate facilities, equipment, and procedures should be used for bedding disposal. Safety equipment should be properly maintained and its function periodically validated.
Appropriate methods should be used for assessing and monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents where required e. Personnel Training As a general rule, safety depends on trained personnel who rigorously follow safe practices. Personnel at risk should be provided with clearly defined procedures and, in specific situations, personal protective equipment to safely conduct their duties, understand the hazards involved, and be proficient in implementing the required safeguards. They should be trained regarding zoonoses, chemical, biologic, and physical hazards e.
Personal Hygiene The use of good personal hygiene will often reduce the possibility of occupational injury and cross contamination. Appropriate policies should be established and enforced, and the institution should supply suitable attire and PPE e. Soiled attire should be disposed of, laundered, or decontaminated by the institution as appropriate, and may require that special provisions be implemented if outside vendors are used.
Outer garments worn in the animal rooms should not be worn outside the animal facility unless covered NRC Personnel should not be permitted to eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or handle or apply contact lenses in rooms and laboratories where animals are housed or used DHHS ; NRC ; OSHA a. Animal Experimentation Involving Hazards When selecting specific safeguards for animal experimentation with hazardous agents, careful attention should be given to procedures for animal care and housing, storage and distribution of the agents, dose preparation and administration, body fluid and tissue handling, waste and carcass disposal, items that might be used temporarily and removed from the site e.
Institutions should have written policies and procedures governing experimentation with hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents. An oversight process such as the use of a safety committee should be developed to involve persons who are knowledgeable in the evaluation and safe use of hazardous materials or procedures and should include review of the procedures and facilities to be used for specific safety concerns. Formal safety programs should be established to assess hazards, determine the safeguards needed for their control, and ensure that staff have the necessary training and skills and that facilities are adequate for the safe conduct of the research.
Technical support should be provided to monitor and ensure compliance with institutional safety policies. A collaborative approach involving the investigator and research team, attending veterinarian, animal care technician, and occupational health and safety professionals may enhance compliance. Facilities that handle agents of unknown risk should consult with appropriate CDC personnel about hazard control and medical surveillance.
The use of immunodeficient or genetically modified animals GMAs susceptible to or shedding human pathogens, the use of human tissues and cell lines, or any infectious disease model can lead to an increased risk to the health and safety of personnel working with the animals Lassnig et al. Hazardous agents should be contained in the study environment, for example through the use of airflow control during the handling and administering of hazardous agents, necropsies on contaminated animals CDC and NIH , and work with chemical hazards Thomann Waste anesthetic gases should be scavenged to limit exposure.
Personal Protection While engineering and administrative controls are the first considerations for the protection of personnel, PPE appropriate for the work environment, including clean institution-issued protective clothing, should be provided as often as necessary. Protective clothing and equipment should not be worn beyond the boundary of the hazardous agent work area or the animal facility DHHS If appropriate, personnel should shower when they leave the animal care, procedure, or dose preparation areas.
Personnel with potential exposure to hazardous agents or certain species should be provided with PPE appropriate to the situation CFR c ; for example, personnel exposed to nonhuman primates should have PPE such as gloves, arm protectors, suitable face masks, face shields, and goggles NRC a.
Hearing protection should be available in high-noise areas OSHA c. Personnel working in areas where they might be exposed to contaminated airborne particulate material or vapors should have suitable respiratory protection Fechter ; McCullough ; OSHA d , with respirator fit testing and training in the proper use and maintenance of the respirator OSHA d ; Sargent and Gallo Medical Evaluation and Preventive Medicine for Personnel Development and implementation of a program of medical evaluation and preventive medicine should involve input from trained health professionals, such as occupational health physicians and nurses.
Confidentiality and other medical and legal factors must be considered in the context of appropriate federal, state, and local regulations e. Periodic medical evaluations are advisable for personnel in specific risk categories. For example, personnel required to use respiratory protection may also require medical evaluation to ensure that they are physically and psychologically able to use the respirator properly Sargent and Gallo An appropriate immunization schedule should be adopted.
It is important to immunize animal care personnel against tetanus NRC , and preexposure immunization should be offered to people at risk of infection or exposure to specific agents such as rabies virus e. Vaccination is recommended if research is to be conducted on infectious diseases for which effective vaccines are available. Preemployment or preexposure serum collection is advisable only in specific circumstances as determined by an occupational health and safety professional NRC In such cases, identification, traceability, retention, and storage conditions of samples should be considered, and the purpose for which the serum samples will be used must be consistent with applicable federal and state laws.
Laboratory animal allergy has become a significant issue for individuals in contact with laboratory animals Bush and Stave ; Gordon ; Wolfle and Bush ; Wood Personnel training should include information about laboratory animal allergies, preventive control measures, early recognition and reporting of allergy symptoms, and proper techniques for working with animals Gordon et at. PPE should be used to supplement, not replace, engineering or process controls Harrison ; Reeb-Whitaker et al. If PPE for respiratory protection is necessary, appropriate fit testing and training should be provided.
Personnel should be instructed to notify their supervisors of potential or known exposures and of suspected health hazards and illnesses. Non-human primate diseases that are transmissible to humans can be serious hazards NRC a.
Animal technicians, veterinarians, investigators, students, research technicians, maintenance workers, and others who have contact with nonhuman primates or their tissues and body fluids or who have duties in nonhuman primate housing areas should be routinely screened for tuberculosis. Because of the potential for exposure to Macacine herpesvirus 1 formerly Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 or Herpes B virus , personnel who work with or handle biologic samples blood and tissues from macaques should have access to and be instructed in the use of bite and scratch emergency care stations Cohen et al.
Injuries associated with macaques, their tissues or body fluids, or caging and equipment with which the animals have had direct contact, should be carefully evaluated and appropriate postexposure treatment and follow-up implemented ibid.
Clear procedures should be established for reporting all accidents, bites, scratches, and allergic reactions NRC , and medical care for such incidents should be readily available Cohen et al. While contingency plans normally address natural disasters, they should also take into account the threats that criminal activities such as personnel harassment and assault, facility trespassing, arson, and vandalism pose to laboratory animals, research personnel, equipment and facilities, and biomedical research at the institution.
Preventive measures should be considered, including preemployment screening and physical and information technology security Miller Safeguarding animal welfare is the responsibility of every individual associated with the Program. The institution must develop methods for reporting and investigating animal welfare concerns, and employees should be aware of the importance of and mechanisms for reporting animal welfare concerns.
Response to such reports should include communication of findings to the concerned employee s , unless such concerns are reported anonymously; corrective actions if deemed necessary; and a report to the IO of the issue, findings, and actions taken. Reported concerns and any corrective actions taken should be documented.
Mechanisms for reporting concerns should be posted in prominent locations in the facility and on applicable institutional website s with instructions on how to report the concern and to whom. Public members should not be laboratory animal users, affiliated in any way with the institution, or members of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the institution.
The public member may receive compensation for participation and ancillary expenses e. For large institutions with many administrative units or departments, no more than three voting members should be associated with a single administrative unit USDA The size of the institution and the nature and extent of the Program will determine the number of members of the committee and their terms of appointment.
Institutions with broad research programs may need to choose scientists from a number of disciplines and experience to properly evaluate animal use protocols. The committee is responsible for oversight and evaluation of the entire Program and its components as described in other sections of the Guide. Its oversight functions include review and approval of proposed animal use protocol review and of proposed significant changes to animal use; regular inspection of facilities and animal use areas; regular review of the Program; ongoing assessment of animal care and use; and establishment of a mechanism for receipt and review of concerns involving the care and use of animals at the institution.
The committee must meet as often as necessary to fulfill its responsibilities, and records of committee meetings and results of deliberations should be maintained. Program review and facilities inspections should occur at least annually or more often as required e. After review and inspection, a written report including any minority views should be provided to the IO about the status of the Program. The animal use protocol is a detailed description of the proposed use of laboratory animals.
The following topics should be considered in the preparation of the protocol by the researcher and its review by the IACUC:. While the responsibility for scientific merit review normally lies outside the IACUC, the committee members should evaluate scientific elements of the protocol as they relate to the welfare and use of the animals. FEMA had previously been criticized for its response to Hurricane Hugo , which hit South Carolina in September , and many of the same issues that plagued the agency during Hurricane Andrew were also evident during the response to Hurricane Katrina in South Florida newspaper Sun-Sentinel has an extensive list of documented criticisms of FEMA during the four hurricanes that hit the region in However, many could not render direct assistance and were only able to report on the dire situation along the Gulf Coast, especially from New Orleans.
Within three days, a large contingent of National Guard and active duty troops were deployed to the region. The enormous number of evacuees simply overwhelmed rescue personnel. The situation was compounded by flood waters in the city that hampered transportation and poor communication among the federal government, state, and local entities. FEMA was widely criticized for what is seen as a slow initial response to the disaster and an inability to effectively manage, care for, and move those who were trying to leave the city.
Brown was criticized personally for a slow response and an apparent disconnection with the situation. Brown would eventually be relieved of command of the Katrina disaster and soon thereafter resigned. According to the U. Other failings were also noted. For years emergency management professionals have been warning that FEMA's preparedness has eroded.
Many believe this erosion is a result of the separation of the preparedness function from FEMA, the drain of long-term professional staff along with their institutional knowledge and expertise, and the inadequate readiness of FEMA's national emergency response teams. The combination of these staffing, training, and organizational structures made FEMA's inadequate performance in the face of a disaster the size of Katrina all but inevitable. Pursuant to a temporary restraining order issued by Hon. Stanwood R. FEMA class-action, February 7, was set as the deadline for the official end of any further coverage of temporary housing costs for Katrina victims.
After the February 7 deadline, Katrina victims were left to their own devices either to find permanent housing for the long term or to continue in social welfare programs set up by other organizations. There were many Katrina evacuees living in temporary shelters or trailer parks set up by FEMA and other relief organizations in the first months after the disaster hit, but much more were still unable to find housing.
FEMA Headquarters had been in constant contact with State congressional offices providing them with the latest information available. The snowstorm damage by this time included downed power wires, downed trees, and structural damage to homes and businesses. Many people of Dumas, Arkansas , especially victims of February 24, tornadoes , criticized FEMA's response in not supplying the number of new trailers they needed, and only sending a set of used trailers, lower than the needed quantity. Following the storm, U. FEMA came under intense criticism when it was revealed that a press conference on the October California wildfires was staged.
Deputy Administrator Harvey E. Johnson was answering questions from FEMA employees who were posing as reporters. Many of these questions were "softball" questions i. In this way, any scrutiny from real reporters many of whom were only given a minute notice would have been avoided. The only people there were primarily FEMA public affairs employees. Maria was the fifth-strongest storm to ever strike the United States with stronger winds than those brought by Irma and similar rain brought to Houston by Hurricane Harvey.
The agency had prepared some provisions for displaced residents before the storm struck, including: roughly FEMA staff members being positioned on the island, food, water, and bedding. The island also experienced a massive loss of power as a result of flood and wind damage sustained during Maria.
In the beginning of October , Lieutenant General Todd Semonite, chief and commanding general of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, explained the extent of and necessity of aid for this power crisis. Semonite described some specifics of the outage to reporters, explaining that the island requires "2, megawatts of electricity to operate and at last count had megawatts available.
FEMA Administrator William "Brock" Long told reporters in a briefing following the storm that Puerto Rico politics had hindered the ability of the federal government to send aid.
He explained that political divisions had prevented unity for leaders in this time of crisis, describing that their issue was "even worse" than the mainland United States' issue between Democrats and Republicans. Residents, in some cases, were required to fill out paperwork in English rather than Spanish with little to no hope of receiving the aid they had requested. Regarding this, General Reyes told reporters " We were not even getting back on our feet after Irma, then suddenly we got hit by Maria. This is because they are able to utilize infrastructure to transport aid. Transporting similar resources to Puerto Rico has proved to be more difficult, as they must travel across the ocean, either in aircraft or in ships.
Hurricane Harvey made landfall in late August , as a Category 4 Hurricane. The Hurricane predominantly affected southeast Texas; however, its effects were felt as far as Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee in the form of flash flooding. This caused heavy flooding in residential areas such as Colorado City, Liberty, and Montgomery, Texas.
Harvey was the first of a series of hurricanes and tropical storms to affect the United States between August and September The effects of these storms included extreme flooding, damage from high speed winds, structural damage, and humanitarian concerns regarding the availability of basic necessities such as food, water, and shelter. Some recipients were forced to wait up to two months before receiving aid from FEMA, as technical complications held up both their application for it and the processing of said applications.
Some residents were denied Federal Aid and have to dispute their denial in efforts to rebuild and repair properties without taking a considerably large financial loss. The costs of a disaster to states and localities can pile up quickly. Federal assistance becomes fully available with the approval of the President and at the request of the governor.
FEMA does not compensate for buildings that have been improperly maintained by the state or local government nor does it pay to upgrade or improve facilities. Grants for disaster preparedness can be used by flood control districts. Many states have disaster relief agencies of their own.
In the event of a disaster outside of a state's operating capacity, the director of said agency will advise the Governor whether or not to proclaim a state of emergency. Declaring a state of emergency, upon Presidential approval, entitles a state to federal assistance. It is important to note that proclaiming a state of emergency does not guarantee federal assistance. States also rely on mutual aid agreements, such as the Civil Defense and Disaster Compact.
A mutual aid agreement can be between neighboring states, cities, counties and cities, states and cities or an entire region. These agreements allow agencies to share resources so they are better prepared for emergencies. Local governments have the most immediate responsibility. Four factors shape local disaster response:. Having a mostly intact tax base allows local governments to maintain steady revenue stream. Business unharmed by a disaster will be able to continue to generate sales tax revenue. Cities with access to large revenue reserves and strong mutual aid agreements will have greater response capacity.
While cities with large municipal debt that would be unable to pay back state or federal loans would be in a difficult situation. This case gave FEMA the right to sue in order to recover funds paid out in flood insurance claims for flood damage as a result of poor decisions by local officials and developers.
The case also gave FEMA the power to sue localities who fail to meet flood plain management requirements. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States disaster response agency, part of Department of Homeland Security. For other uses, see FEMA disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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