However, the project also included the creation of millions of new individual files on the basis of the bulletins. Hence, as early as , the SNS devoted 1 employees to the sole task of creating these files and feed the national population database. The FrID was interesting in another, major respect for statistical services: it was an opportunity to further rationalise their activity by using, on a very large scale, the identification number invented by R. A 6 November SNS memo explains the logic of this digit number, with its five components:.
French citizen Non-Jewish indigenous French subject …….. Jewish indigenous French subject……….. Ill-defined status… Second component : two digits, from 00 to 99, defining year of birth — the last two digits of the millesime.
Third component : two digits, from 01 to 12, defining month of birth. Fourth component : five digits defining place of birth, according a given geographical codification of communes. The next three define the town. Foreign countries or dominions are given special codes.
Fifth component : Civil status registries have been used to build one specific registry per commune, where births are registered chronologically. Specific methods have been used to build these registries even when civil status registries could not be relied upon case of foreigners; lost or destroyed registries; etc.
Example : number This was a breakthrough innovation for the statistical system designed by R. Yielding detailed information, unchanged from birth to death, the identification number would unambiguously characterise the bearer. Hence, one of R. Carmille's main goals was to generalise its use, in order to facilitate all the statistical operations he was planning.
Regional SD offices — there were about twenty of them — used municipal birth registries to build identification numbers for all citizens. By August , they were almost done producing a huge general identification database that included all individuals born in France from to An additional benefit for Carmille and his teams was that the unique ID number made it a lot easier to find, and update if necessary, the individual files they had compiled about French nationals.
Carmille's larger design was to generalise its use among citizens and public administration organisations, in order to make it a true reference identifier In , all regional divisions of the SNS initiated controls to ascertain that the actual identity of individuals requesting the FrID matched the digit number stored in their general identification registry. This gigantic effort mobilised employees full-time. Finally, they checked that this number indeed matched the number that they already had stored in their general identification registry.
Close examination of archived material shows why Vichy's statistical agencies were so keen on contributing to the carding designs of police forces, and why the MI decided to collaborate with R. Carmille's teams. From the policing point of view, this collaboration had two advantages: on the one hand, it was an opportunity to improve the carding process and make it safer; on the other, it made it possible to implement low- cost, stringent controls on the movements of populations.
From the MI's point of view, the whole procedure was yet another way of guaranteeing the proof value of all identity papers it produced. Every French citizen, being identified on the basis of various civil status documents — which backed the FrID application, enabling regional statistical offices to check that people matched their unique identification number — was granted a FrID bearing this very number. Until then, police forces only used numbers to identify ID cards themselves, generally using a simple order number.
With R. In addition to these expensive pieces of equipment, R.
Lettres d'exil. I have presented a number of research papers at local, regional and international conferences. Action is urgently needed! The primary purpose of the book and the panel is to revive the international dialogue on displaced archives in view of the theoretical, socio-political and technological developments of more recent years. This presentation concludes by presenting the other challenges such as privacy necessary to tackle for the project success. Specific benefits to the archives have included a strong presence in the CRC exhibition programme, working with the museum professionals to achieve joint archives and museums accreditation status, a new shared Collections Management Policy and support from a new User Services team which works across the collections. As a volunteer to this national committee, it has helped her pursue her advocacy in preservation, which she is very passionate about.
Carmille's teams also bought stamping machines to emboss the number in such a way that it became unalterable Exhibit 9. Exhibit 9: Cruchot stamping and embossing machine user's guide undated. Another benefit of the system was that it would not allow a given citizen to unduly procure several FrIDs. Having statistical agencies collect information on French citizens in order to organise military resistance would have lacked efficiency without the possibility to keep track of people's addresses.
Indeed, how can a reserve army be mobilised if reservists cannot be contacted at just the right time? That is why, under Vichy, statistical services played a major role in designing a change of address monitoring system, which the MI was also extremely interested in — indeed, the MI saw it as inseparable from the FrID in terms of better controlling population movements on the whole territory.
However, given the considerable workload involved, the MI was unwilling to manage a declarative system on its own, and decided instead to rely on R. Carmille's teams to implement it. By entrusting them with the actual management of the system, the MI thus intended to bypass a heavy organizational workload while still keeping a close look on its implementation, especially since German authorities were also insisting that measures be taken in this respect On May 30, , a bill was passed requiring every French citizen living in the metropolitan territory to declare each successive change of address.
Drafted jointly by police and statistical authorities, it came into effect early March Thanks to this Act, statisticians were also able to keep most of the files they had built up-to-date. Exhibit Change of address report form, Clearly, relying on statistical agencies was a way for the MI to increase the performance level of the carding system it was coordinating. While this goal was indeed achieved to some extent, the engagement of these services can also be considered as counterproductive with regards to policing identification imperatives. Still, in their obsession to collect the personal data needed to achieve their - official as well as unofficial - objectives, the said agencies initiated activities that reveal a strong propensity to population control, tending to directly serve the regime's most authoritarian goals.
The very involvement of statistical agencies in the design process of the FrID significantly contributed to delaying the implementation of the system. Deux exemples parmi d'autres pour retracer le processus de construction identitaire et ses enjeux.
L'ethnicisation d'un conflit : Rwanda un conflit ethnique sans ethnie. Quelques pistes d'analyse. Voir aussi le dossier de nonfiction. Eric Roussel, Vies de cadres. Vers un nouveau rapport au travail, Presses universitaires de Rennes, coll. Armand Colin, Jean-Claude Kaufmann. L'invention de soi.
Edition de poche : Hachette-Pluriel, Dubar, C. Dubar, L'autre jeunesse. Portier, B. Je les en remercie.
Ainsi, le texte majeur de L. Abstract A source of controversy since , the wearing of the Islamic headscarf in public schools has long been a popular topic of inquiry among social science researchers. Parties annexes Notes  D.