Wie im Siebenten: Roman (German Edition)

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This survives complete only in an Armenian translation; of the Syriac original about three quarters survives. The Armenian was edited, with Latin translation, in L. Leloir , S. The Syriac was likewise edited by Leloir, with a facing Latin translation, in L. Dublin: Hodges Figgis, Subsequently some new pages from the unique Syriac manuscript were acquired by the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, and an edition of these, with Latin translation, was published in L.

English translation in C. Oxford: Oxford University Press, English translation of section 16 in A. English translation of Brock , A brief outline of Syriac literature. Kottayam: St. French translation in L. French translation of excerpts from the pages published in were given in L. Gribomont , Ed. Rome: Augustinian Patristic Institute, , pp. German translation of a series of excerpts by E.

German translation of the whole in C. Lange , Ephraem der Syrer: Kommentar zum Diatessaron , 2 vol. A Catalan translation of excerpts is given in M. Himnes i homilies. Barcelona: Edicions Proa, The Syriac original is lost and only an Armenian translation survives, edited in N. Akinian , S. Ephraem Syri interpretatio Actus Apostolorum.

Vienna: [s. A Latin translation of the Commentary, together with an English translation of excerpts from it in an Armenian catena, by F. Conybeare in pages of F. Jackson , Lake, K. Part I, The, acts of the apostles. London: Macmillan, This too survives only in an Armenian translation.

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The only translation available is into Latin: Patres Mekitharistes , S. Pauli nunc primum ex armenio in Latinum sermonem a patribus Mekitharistis translati. Venice: Ex Typographia Sancti Lazari, Mitchell, in C. This work, also entitled "Against the Platonists", was edited, with English translation, in C. German translation in E. Edited, with English translation, in C. Mitchell entitles this "Against Marcion I". This is a prose counterpart to Hymns on Virginity nos. Edited, with German translation, by Beck, E. Lamy , Sancti Ephraem Syri hymni et sermones quos e codicibus Londinensibus, Parisiensibus et Oxoniensibus descriptos edidit, Latinitate donavit, variis lectionibus instruxit, notis et prolegomenis illustravit 1 , vol.

Mechliniae: H. English translations in J. Brock , Spirituality in the Syriac Tradition , 2nd ed. Catalan translation in M. See under Lamy 29 2. One further short excerpt, quoted by Philoxenus, has been published, with French translation, in F. Graffin , Sancti Philoxeni episcopi Mabbugensis dissertationes decem de uno e sancta Trinitate incorporato et passo.

Two long extracts survive; these have been published, with English translation in S. The Letter takes the form of a meditation on the Last Judgement. Another English translation is given in E. English translation of sections 22—25 in S. Edited by Overbeck, 88—94 see above. According to Jansma, who provided a French translation, this homily seems to be genuine: T. The six verse homilies on Faith have been re-edited by Beck in E. This replaced J.

Rome: Vatican, There is an old English translation, made from the Roman Edition and divided into three homilies, in J. Morris , Selected Works of S. Ephrem the Syrian, Translated out of the Original Syriac. OXford: J. Parker, English translation of —38, —, and of the whole of 5, in A. There are complete unpublished translations by A. Palmer and P.

Only a few excerpts of the Syriac original of these verse homilies on the destruction of Nicomedia in an earthquake in AD survive; considerably more, however, is preserved in an Armenian translation. The Armenian and Syriac texts have been edited, with a French translation, in C. Catalan translation of Nicom.

A further verse text against Bardaisan, also attributed to Ephrem [ 54], was published, with English translation in A. By no means all of the twenty one texts edited, with German translation, by Beck in these four volumes are genuinely by Ephrem. For convenience of reference, the complete contents of each of the four volumes are listed in order, indicating which texts Beck considers to be genuine. On Reproof [ 88]. On Reproof [ 89]. On Qohelet's words "All is vanity" [ 87]. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, Holland: Monastery of St. Ephrem, On Admonition [ 49]. On Isaiah [ 72]. On Repentance [ 36].

Malan , Repentance: Chiefly from the Syriac of S. London: J. Masters, English translation in Citekey not found No. On Reproof [ 91]. Another English translation in S. Another edition of the Syriac, based on a different manuscript, is given in S. Glane, Holland: Bar-Hebraeus Verlag, All five are re-editions, as follows: No. On the Fear of God and on the End [ ]. On Magicians etc, and on the End [ 77].

On the Second Coming of Christ [ 53]. Of the four texts published, with German translation, in this volume Beck considers that only the second might possibly be genuine.

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All four are re-editions, as follows: No. Also in Rahmani. On the Solitary Life etc. Paris; London: Maisonneuve; Williams and Norgate, On Solitaries ihidaye [ ]. There are two English translations in D. The other by J. Amar, in J. Amar and Wimbush, V. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, This is the prose Letter to the Mountain Ascetics [ ].

Partial English translation in J. Edition, with French translation in R. There is a further edition of the Syriac text in P. Bedjan , Ed. Liber Fundatorum Monasteriorum in regno Persarum et Arabum. Homiliae Mar-Narsetis in Joseph. Documenta Patrum de quibusdam verae fidei dogmatibus. Paris; Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, English translation of lines 1—, S. Brock , The harp of the spirit: 18 poems of Saint Ephrem , 2nd ed.

London: Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius, Noseda of an early Arabic translation in P. Francesco Fumagalli and Noseda, S. Milan: Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana, The opening, and several folios in the middle, are lost. In the late manuscripts they are allocated to liturgical hours; 8 is in fact for the Sunday after Easter, not the Resurrection itself.

All are re-editions, with German translation, of texts already published by Lamy, as follows: 1. Monday Ramsho of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. Tuesday Lilyo of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. Wednesday Lilyo of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. Thursday Lilyo of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. French translation, E. Friday Lilyo of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. English translation in D. Sheerin , The Eucharist. Wilmington: M. Glazier, Friday Sapro of the Crucifixion: Lamy, 1.

Saturday Lilyo of Holy Week: Lamy, 1. New Sunday Lilyo : Lamy, 1. English translation in M. Hansbury , Hymns of Saint Ephrem the Syrian. London: SLG Press, Italian translation in I. Magnano: Monastero di Bose, Memre on Joseph In 12 Books, also attributed to Balai. Complete editions in P. Earlier editions: J. Lamy , Sancti Ephraem Syri hymni et sermones quos e codicibus Londinensibus, Parisiensibus et Oxoniensibus descriptos edidit, Latinitate donavit, variis lectionibus instruxit, notis et prolegomenis illustravit 3 , vol. Books I—10 are also to be found in G. Hopkins and Brock, S.

Reprinted in S. Brock , Ed. Ashgate: Aldershot, The text is also given in S. English translation, S. French translation in B. Outtier , Ed. Lavenant , Ed. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, English translation in A. French translation in D. Translations of individual hymns: Eccl. Italian translation in K. See also S. Brock and Kiraz, G. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, McLean: St. Athanasius' Coptic Pub. Centre, Translated in K. McVey , Ephrem the Syrian: Hymns.

New York: Paulist Press, They are numbered 8—13 1—7 are lost. These correspond to Hymns 1—6, Lamy, 3. There is an English translation of the last hymn, on Shmoni and her seven sons the Maccabean martyrs in R. Bensly and Barnes, W. French translation in F. Paris: cerf. Milan: Paoline, cop, Translations of individual hymns: Cruc. Rouwhorst , Efrem de Syrier: hymnen voor de viering van het kerkelijk jaar. Beck considers only a few to be genuine. His edition replaces that in Lamy I which has a different numbering of the hymns. English translation J. Romanian translation in I. Sibiu: Deisis, Translations of individual hymns: Epiph.

English translation of the complete collection in J. There are unpublished complete English translations by A. French translation, F. For the question of interpolated stanzas, see Palmer c, f, g, i. Translations of individual hymns: Fid. Brock , A Hymn on the Eucharist: hymns on faith, no.

Lancaster: J. Coakley, Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, Palmer, in A. Palmer , J. Boeft, den , and Hilhorst, A. Brill, , pp. Italian translation in P. London: Bell, Pereira , Studies in Aramaic poetry c. Assen: Van Gorcum, Polet and Longton, J. Bruxelles: De Boeck , Italian translation in E. Vergani , Efrem il Siro: Il dono della perla. Spanish translation in F. Lamy , Sancti Ephraem Syri hymni et sermones quos e codicibus Londinensibus, Parisiensibus et Oxoniensibus descriptos edidit, Latinitate donavit, variis lectionibus instruxit, notis et prolegomenis illustravit 2 , vol.

Cerbelaud , Hymnes sur le jeune. Vergani , La restituzione del debito, Melodie e istruzioni sul Digiuno. Milan: Centro ambrosiano, Milan: Edizioni Paoline, Translations of individual hymns: Iei. Translations of individual hymns: Haer. Jansma , Natuur, lot en vrijheid: Bardesanes, de filosoof der Arameers en zijn images. Wageningen: Veenmann, English translation, McVey and Lieu in K. McVey and Lieu, S. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, Russian translation in A. Muraviev , Mar Ephrem of Nisibis St. Ephrem the Syrian : Julian's Cycles. Complete English translation in K.

Beck 9 stanza 2 fol. Beck 10 st. McVey's numbering is of course the same as Beck's. Hindo and Saleh, C. Paris: L'Harmattan, Arabic translation with vocalized serto text in Y. Translations of individual hymns: Nat. Dutch translation in K. Laurentin and Yousif, P. Bickell , S.

Ephraemi Syri carmina Nisibena additis prolegomenis et supplemento lexicorum Syriacorum. Leipzig: F. Brockhaus, Sarsfield Stopford of hymns 1—21, 35—42, and 62—68 in J. Translated into English with prolegomena and explanatory notes , vol. Gwynn , Ed. French translation in P. Paris: Cariscript, Cerbelaud , La descente aux enfers: Carmina Nisibena. Godewaersvelde: Editions de Bellefontaine, Translations of individual hymns: Nis. Paris: Geuthner, , pp. Paul sur les carmina nisibena de S.

French translation in R. Lavenant and Graffin, R. Hymnes sur le Paradis. Milan: Paoline, Latin translation in E. Swedish translation in S. Hidal , Hymnerna om Paradiset. Finnish translation in S. For suggested interpolated stanzas, see A. Translations of individual hymns: Par. Cunningham , Prayer: personal and liturgical , vol. Wilmington: Glazier, Translations of individual hymns: Res. Catalan translation M. Translations of individual hymns: Azym. Ephrem : an analysis of H. English translation in K. Cerbelaud , Le Christ en ses symboles: Hymnes de Virginitate , vol.

There are few notes, but an extensive glossary. These contain a Middle Persian Latin-script transliteration, with each chapter followed by a German translation and very full, primarily legal commentary. The volume contains the second Anklesaria portion of the text, the volume the rest. Emmerick and M. Macuch eds. Rousseau and M. Papoutsakis eds. Hezser ed. Fonrobert and M. Jaffee eds. Shaked and A. Netzer eds.

For versions in English, see M. Copenhagen, hereafter Dd and PRDd. For a useful study comparing some aspects of the MHD with later texts, see B. Gyselen ed. See M. Macuch, M. Maggi and W. Sundermann eds. Emmerick Memorial Volume, Iranica 13 Wiesbaden, , Even where the sequence is known, there are often intervening folios missing. The situation is made even more difficult by the fact that the surviving chapter numbers are themselves additions to the manuscript albeit almost certainly by the scribe himself , but with several chapters left unnumbered.

Both main editions of the MHD generally keep the current manuscript page order rather than trying to perform an uncertain palingenesis. These modern editions also use two separate page sequences to reflect the bi-partite discovery.

From the start, therefore, the manner of the survival of the MHD has not made study of it at all easy. It is my intention, nonetheless, to give some account of the content and nature of the MHD, its author and the Sasanian legal context as far as it can be illuminated.

I claim no special expertise in Sasanian affairs and know little Persian of any period beyond some curses taught me by my father! However, I hope that there is virtue in introducing this much neglected legal text to a wider audience and offering some general observations informed by my knowledge of Roman legal history. Thus I will illustrate various features by offering, where appropriate, contrasts and parallels with Roman law and legal writings.

As we shall see, it is perhaps Rome which is anomalous, for the Zoroastrian bedrock of much Sasanian law suggests that 10 Twenty folios were purchased by T. Anklesaria in and published in facsimile in ; the other 55 folios came into the library of M. Hataria, being published in facsimile in Both sets of folios have ended up together in the same library in Bombay. To avoid confusion, I use Arabic numerals for the page references, but Roman numerals on the rarer occasions when I cite the chapter numbers.

The photograph used for this paper was taken by him during a trip across south-western Persia in Whitby tr. The MHD is divided up into chapters with headings. We do not know much of Roman juristic prefaces, but what little we can tell suggests that they were short, practical and to the point. Thus the third-century jurist, Modestinus, opens his work on excuses to escape tutorships as follows: Herennius Modestinus to Egnatius Dexter.

I shall do what I can to make the exposition of the problems clear, translating technical terms into Greek, although I know that such translation is not particularly suitable.

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In the course of the work, I will include the original terms of provisions where they are required so that by providing both the text and the commentary, we shall provide both what is necessary and what is useful. So great a text has been given into the keeping of the human race that gods and men should be blessed to the end of time for its beneficial existence. This is a repository of the bases of the wisdom of creation, of discernment and of prudent consciousness MHD Thus we can infer that MHD 73 contains ch.

V, with the numberless title at MHD VI and that at MHD See Macuch, Rechtskasuistik und Gerichtspraxis, pp. See the discussion by S. Demandt, A. Goltz, and H. The gods are the highest bastion for creatures struggling for righteousness as is clarified by religion. And with the help of knowledge from religion, it is possible to reach perfection through every manifestation of understanding, through all knowledge and capacity to discern, and through activity. Then the respect found in religion as regards claims and judicial investigation carried out with awareness is praised by the divine word But he from whom the portion was stolen, and who as a result of the theft abandoned the spiritual teachings of the righteous and command of the gods, he perishes through his thoughts, words and deeds.

It has been shown beyond question by others that he, who through his own striving and zeal, has obtained a share of immortality and eternal prosperity, who being versed in matters of religion and of the gods has made himself invulnerable to claims and judicial investigations through a knowledge of his obligations, and who has kept the form of his thought, speech and action pure in accordance with righteousness, is to be considered the more fortunate.

And I Farrakhmard, son of Vahram, to make this prosperity more prosperous Farrakhmard is clearly coming from a strong Zoroastrian viewpoint, so that justice and the legal system are an integral part of true religious practice. The righteous man is naturally righteous also in matters of law, and thereby invulnerable to undesirable litigation. I have sought the course of action most pleasing to God, and have found that it consists in that whereby sky and earth is kept pure: that is to say, in equity and justice. This may mask the obscurities and difficulties of the original.

For the full text, see M. We cannot even be sure of the extent to which he is the author rather than perhaps the editor of the text, although it seems most natural to take the occasional first person interventions in the work as being indeed those of Farrakhmard himself. One key point, however, is that further direct engagement with religious issues ceases. There is certainly plenty about Fire Temples and priests. But almost none of this is discussed in sententious theological language and the focus is on civil law.

Despite the truncation of the introductory material, some guesses can be made about him on the basis of the work itself, as to who, where and when. He must be a legal professional, trained in Avestan jurisprudence and entirely familiar with legal literature, court practice and his significant legal contemporaries and predecessors. Further, the book is achingly obscure: sentences are long and ambiguous, technical terms are never explained.

This is a work written by a professional for other professionals and makes no concession for either student or amateur. Thus it is neither a textbook nor a treatise, but a reference- collection for a skilled practitioner. It is perhaps no surprise, therefore, that the law remains rather opaque to us, with the translations and interpretations of modern scholars often differing greatly. Given that one of the more frequently cited legal authorities is Vahram, I do rather wonder if that Vahram was his father, although he is nowhere described as such, and it is hardly an unusual name.

That this specialism ran in the family, however, is certainly an attractive idea. It is in the ancient region of Persis Fars , the Sasanian homeland, km south of Persepolis, and was at this time capital of a homonymous province of Ardeshir-Khwarra.

Section I. OLDER EDITIONS, PARTLY REPLACED BY CSCO

For administrative status, see R. For a useful map, see C. Yarshater ed. Cambridge, , vol. For a wonderful aerial view, see D. Stronach and A. Most chronologically identifiable persons in the work lived in the fifth or sixth century; but the latest dateable reference is Year 26 of Khusro II, i. Azodi, rev. London, , plate XX. Le Strange and R. Nicholson eds. London, , pp. See generally N. Babylonia MHD Hyrcania MHD See S.

Kotwal and P. I remain sceptical of these identifications. But in fact the attitude of the Sasanids to such matters fluctuated. Everything else about the book suggests that the full panoply of the Sasanian state and its hierarchy was still functioning and that a broad range of judicial issues was within the competence of judges, not just those issues of family law allowed to Zoroastrians under Islamic rule.

There seems no good reason, therefore, to doubt that this is in essence a genuine work from the last decades of the Sasanian empire, if perhaps with limited later interpolation. The only other reference to conversion is in regard to slaves of Christians becoming Zoroastrians, which reads as follows: It is written in one place that if a slave belonging to a Christian converts to the Good Religion and enters service with a Zoroastrian, the latter must return the price of the slave to his former master and free the slave, and the slave must compensate him for his loss.

But if a slave does not enter service with a Zoroastrian and yet converts, he himself must repay his own price. MHD 1. However, for the Roman legal position, we can trace its evolution over years from Constantine to passages. See Dd However, this does not seem to have been the position in the late Sasanian period. See Letter of Tansar M. Boyce, The Letter of Tansar Rome, , p. Yazdegerd I: S. Mathisen ed. Thus Justinian states: A pagan, Jew or Samaritan or whoever is not orthodox cannot have a Christian slave. The slave shall be liberated, and the owner is to pay 30 pounds of gold to the res privata.

Otherwise, it might simply result from there being few members of such minorities in the area of Ardeshir-Khwarrah. Modestinus at Digest See the useful collection of texts by A. This may be more of a worry in the post-conquest situation: e. Note also MHDA On the difficulties of this passage, see Macuch, Rechtskasuistik und Gerichtspraxis, pp. V on offences, penalties and the obstruction of justice, ch. VI on the activity of the legal representatives and ch.

VII on the plaintiff. This is not necessarily confined to the later known chapters, whose compilation of diverse matters calls to mind the late miscellaneous titles at the end of Book 50 of the Digest.

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The loss of the text after MHD 80 has deprived us of any blueprint Farrakhmard might have offered, and he nowhere else indicates that he is following either the pattern of an external source or some internal logic of his own. Even within a title, the organization of the material is not obvious. By contrast, the organization of Roman legal works is generally more transparent and indeed a great deal more can be deduced, not only where programmatic statements survive, such as imperial promulgatory constitutions, but also because source citations are remarkably explicit; thus to author, work and book number within a work for jurists, and to emperor and date for imperial laws.

Religious law as such e. LI On several decisions which have to be taken especially into consideration because of the phrasing , ch. LII On the competences of the officials , ch. LIII On different considerations regarding written and sealed documents and ch. LIV On statements belonging together with other statements ; cf.

Digest Vahman and C. Pedersen eds.

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Austin, J. Harries and C. Smith eds. Sperandio, Codex Gregorianus: origini e vicende Naples, , pp. For the reconstructed edict, see O. Lenel, Das Edictum perpetuum: ein Versuch zu seiner Wiederherstellung, 3rd edn. Leipzig, Criminal law also is not treated in a substantive fashion, although crimes are largely defined according to Zoroastrian norms.

Plentiful surviving examples of seals and seal impressions support the importance of written documents suggested by this. Curtis and S. Stewart eds. Gyselen, Sasanian Seals and Sealings in the A. Jews and Christians, of course, also used seals: S. Ghirshman, Iran: Parthians and Sassanians London, , p.

The children produced from this sort of marriage were the heirs of the deceased man, not of the biological father. There are some parallels with Jewish levirate marriage, and even with the Athenian epiklerate. The obvious contrast is with Roman succession and the sacra, the religious rituals required of an heir and subject to supervision by the pontifices.

Here Republican jurists came up with ways for people to inherit without the burden of performing said sacra. The essences of ritual and property remained for the most part intertwined, even if the actual property itself was of course a major part of the issue. By far the longest chapters in the book as it survives are on sturhship and succession. Succession is something both complex and liable to be contested, with enough at stake to make litigation a likely option.

Certainly this emphasis makes the book feel in many ways not unlike the writings of the Roman jurists, where issues of succession and transfer of property are predominant. It has been argued that the attention paid to succession reflects a crisis of the Sasanian aristocracy, failing, as aristocracies so often do, to reproduce itself. However, legal practitioners will naturally have had to spend more time tackling the most complex and intractable problems, and this need not mean that such cases were it was in the Mediterranean world.

For a Roman law perspective, see F. Encylopaedia Iranica, online edn. For the Roman senatorial class not reproducing, see W. Within each chapter, there is a series of individual sections, which do not make up a continuous discussion. This is no treatise, and seldom seeks to explain. The sections can take various forms. Quite commonly a named authority is cited: e. In neither case is it clear whether one derives from an oral decision and the other from a written work. Nor is it clear in most cases whether or not these are contemporaries, whose opinions or judgements may have been heard by the author in person.

Again, it is unknown whether citations are taken from a distinct work of the person cited, or from more varied collections of sententiae or responsa of numerous different authorities. Sometimes, however, such authorities are themselves named as citing from other authorities, very much in the manner of the Roman jurists citing each other discussed further below.

Sometimes specific cases are mentioned, and indeed specific documents. Thus at one point the author confirms his statement on the basis of an ordeal court document he has himself seen. This chapter refers to a decree issued under Khurso I by the rads specifically for Ardeshir-Khwarrah A feature to note is that, very commonly in the examples or cases cited, similar sets of names recur: Farrakh, Mihren, Pusak and so forth. Whether these are purely imaginary and exemplary cases, however, or ones where the original personae have been anonymized, is not clear.

Certainly genuine cases involving the identification of real individuals are discussed, such as in the matter of the marriage of Veh- Shapur and Khataydukht. But are we dealing with sententiae delivered in judgement, or with responsa to legal problems which are either real from a prospective litigant or perhaps imaginary from a student? Or is there a mixture of these? If two persons receive money as a loan and declare that they are joint-guarantors, then how shall it be?

Also, the author occasionally gives his own opinion,73 in one instance even giving his reasoning, which is rare indeed. The eleventh-century Byzantine work known as the Peira is perhaps the most suggestive text in the Roman legal tradition, based as it is on the rulings of a particular judge. First, the key group of sources is essentially jurists or judges. These are generally referred to by single names, occasionally with patronymics.

Unfortunately, it is not clear whether they wrote on all the Avesta or only certain parts, and therefore how wide or narrow their interests were. In some cases we do know. Stein and A. Lewis eds. Thomas London, , Troianos ed. Schools of jurisprudence, of course, are very common, being a feature not only of Persia and Rome, but also in Jewish and Islamic law. While the first formal collecting of Zoroastrian materials began with the advent of the dynasty in the third century, the creation of a special script for the Avesta and the writing down of a full and fixed canon including the Pahlavi Zand translation and commentaries were things not swiftly done, especially for a tradition that had been resolutely oral.

Thus it is argued that only with the creation of a fixed canon could consistent commentary also come into being. Jolowicz rev. Cambridge, , pp. Bowman, E. Champlin and A. Lintott eds. Hallaq ed. The true chronology remains vexed. See A. In both cases we have just three generations for the commentaries to be written and crystallize their respective traditions. However, trying to pin down the chronology of the commentators relative to Farrakhmard or anyone else is extremely difficult.

This change may be associated with the succession dispute, hinging on the issue of whether the child of a king or other noble by a slave concubine was a slave or a free-born royal pretender. Thus Vahram might have changed the law to damage Hormizd, whose mother was Turkic, perhaps a concubine. Sallmann ed. It is perhaps strange, however, that Vahram has no patronymic, nor is he explicitly called king of kings.

The association of this legal change with high politics should be regarded as unlikely, but the chronology it suggests certainly creates a plausible succession history for the two schools of Avestan jurisprudence, with their originators belonging to the reign of Khusro I, their successors to the later sixth century and the most recent to the early seventh, making Farrakhmard a younger contemporary of the most recent. Thus this provided the terminal point for the schools by ossifying the existing commentary tradition, which may still have been largely oral up to that point.

We may doubt how much was really known about these older commentators or that there was much in the way of fixed written works of individuals which could be consulted. Justinian was dealing with a long tradition of legal writing by well- known authors. Rather, long oral traditions end up creatively reimagined at the time of their later crystallization. The chronology of the most august authorities in the MHD, therefore, remains difficult to determine.

When we look at all the jurists mentioned, the problem is exacerbated in that many persons have the same name, either within the work, or sometimes in other sources, yet need not thereby be identified as the same person. Farrakhmard mentions three Pusanvehs, two with distinct patronymics. Or is he to be identified with either of the previous two, and could this differ in different passages?

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Did Farrakhmard himself always know who was who anyway? Can we make anything of the appearance of several jurists in the 93 See the various contributions in Fonrobert and Jaffee, Cambridge Companion to the Talmud, introduction and chs. This is not easy to do. Secondly, clear citations, which show that the person doing the citing must be contemporary with or later than the person cited, are not that common and do not allow us to construct much in the way of a relative chronology, even if we suppose the minimum number of identities for repeated names.

However, there are occasional references to historical personages especially various kings of kings , which can provide an anchor. Taking all this into account, we can tease out a few broad chronological interrelationships.