Manual do Cachorro (Portuguese Edition)

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Sign in to view. Any news about it? This is different from other Cordyceps species, which produce either immersed or superficial perithecia perpendicular to stromal surface, and the ascospores at maturity are disarticulated into part spores.

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The species was first described scientifically by Miles Berkeley in as Sphaeria sinensis ; [13] Pier Andrea Saccardo transferred the species to the genus Cordyceps in The name was first recorded in the 15th century by the Tibetan doctor Zurkhar Namnyi Dorje. In colloquial Tibetan yartsa gunbu is often shortened to simply "bu" or "yartsa". The transliteration in Bhutan is yartsa guenboob.

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It is known as keera jhar , keeda jadi , keeda ghas or ghaas fafoond in Nepali and Garhwali. The English term "vegetable caterpillar" is a misnomer, as no plant is involved. Since the s, 22 species in 13 genera have been attributed to the anamorph asexually reproducing mold-like form of O. Of the 22 species, Cephalosporium acreomonium is the zygomycetous species of Umbelopsis , Chrysosporium sinense has very low similarity in RAPD polymorphism, hence it is not the anamorph.

Likewise, Cephalosporium dongchongxiacae , C. Cephalosporium sinensis possibly might be synonymous to H. Isaria farinosa is combined to Paecilomyces farinosus and is not the anamorph. Several isolates of Isaria sp. Mortierella hepiali is discarded as anamorph as it belongs to Zygomycota. Paecilomyces sinensis and Sporothrix insectorum are discarded based on the molecular evidence. Tolypocladium sinense, P. Similarly, Metarhizium anisopliae is not considered anamorph as it has widely distributed host range, and is not restricted only in high altitude.

Thus Hirsutella sinensis is considered the validly published anamorph of O. This also confirms H. The caterpillars prone to infection by O.

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The fungus is reported from the northern range of Nepal, Bhutan, and also from the northern states of India, apart from northern Yunnan, eastern Qinghai, eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, southwestern Gansu provinces. The stalk-like dark brown to black fruiting body or mushroom grows out of the head of the dead caterpillar and emerges from the soil in alpine meadows by early spring.

The caterpillars, which live underground feeding on roots, are most vulnerable to the fungus after shedding their skin, during late summer. In late autumn, chemicals on the skin of the caterpillar interact with the fungal spores and release the fungal mycelia , which then infects the caterpillar. The infected larvae tend to remain underground vertical to the soil surface with their heads up.

After invading a host larva, the fungus ramifies throughout the host and eventually kills it. Gradually the host larvae become rigid because of the production of fungal sclerotia. Fungal sclerotia are multihyphal structures that can remain dormant and then germinate to produce spores. After over-wintering, the fungus ruptures the host body, forming the fruiting body, a sexual sporulating structure a perithecial stroma from the larval head that is connected to the sclerotia dead larva below ground and grows upward to emerge from the soil to complete the cycle.

The slow growing O. Temperature requirements and growth rates are crucial factors that identify O. The use of caterpillar fungus as folk medicine apparently originated in Tibet and Nepal. So far the oldest known text documenting its use was written in the late 15th century by the Tibetan doctor Zurkhar Nyamnyi Dorje Wylie: Zur mkhar mnyam nyid rdo rje [] in his text: Man ngag bye ba ring bsrel "Instructions on a Myriad of Medicines".

A translation is available at Winkler. In traditional Chinese medicine TCM , it is regarded as having an excellent balance of yin and yang as it is considered to be composed of both an animal and a vegetable. However, no one has succeeded so far in rearing the fungus by infecting cultivated caterpillars; [6] all products derived from cultured Ophiocordyceps are derived from mycelia grown on grains or in liquids. In rural Tibet , yartsa gunbu has become the most important source of cash income. The annual production on the Tibetan Plateau was estimated in at 80— tons.

In the value of a kilogram of caterpillars was estimated at about 30, to 60, Nepali rupees in Nepal, and about Rs , in India. However, the value of large caterpillar fungus has increased more dramatically than small Cordyceps, regarded as lower quality. Because of its high value, inter-village conflicts over access to its grassland habitats has become a headache for the local governing bodies and in several cases people were killed.

In November , a court in Nepal convicted 19 villagers over the murder of a group of farmers during a fight over the prized aphrodisiac fungus.

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Seven farmers were killed in the remote northern district of Manang in June after going to forage for Yarchagumba. Its value gave it a role in the Nepalese Civil War , as the Nepalese Maoists and government forces fought for control of the lucrative export trade during the June—July harvest season. The search for Ophiocordyceps sinensis is often perceived to threaten the environment of the Tibetan Plateau where it grows.

While it has been collected for centuries and is still common in such areas, current collection rates are much higher than in historical times.

Cultivated O. Artificial culture of O. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the other fungus with this common name, see Ophiocordyceps robertsii. Sung, J.

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