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Context , No Comment — August 28, , pm. Sign in here. Subscribe here. By Christopher Ketcham. By William T. By Earl Shorris. By Nell Zink. By Christopher Tayler. By Aaron Lake Smith. Wishing to see the border for myself, I decided to visit Arizona, where my ignorance of local conditions might save me from prejudgment. Cars were plowing bow waves through puddles of scum. Stalingrad , by Vasily Grossman. Translated by Robert Chandler and Elizabeth Chandler. New York Review Books. Yale University Press.
Life and Fate , by Vasily Grossman. Translated by Robert Chandler. An Armenian Sketchbook , by Vasily Grossman.
Hof: Hof Innenhof. Hof Schulhof. Hof Bauernhof : Hof.
Hof Halo : Hof. One example from the Internet. Phrases: jdm den Hof machen veraltend. Are you missing a word, phrase or translation? Submit a new entry. Compile a new entry.
Apartments are situated cca m from the sea, house is situated cca 2 m from the town center, nearest grocery shop cca 50 m away, nearest restoran cca 50 m away. Renaissance arcades, Gothic staircases, a citadel from the Middle Ages, magnificent churches, romantic squares and courtyards , from paradise to sinful areas, an artful blue bubble and floating island on the river — experience all the thrills Graz offers. Wo vorher nichts mehr wuchs, wird jetzt angebaut und geerntet: www. He proudly displays his own aqueduct in the courtyard , which provides him with water for drinking and irrigation.
Growing and harvesting crops where once there was barren land. Hasegawa was inspired by the courtyard in Islamic architecture — in particular the historical courtyards of Sharjah— where elements of both public and private life intertwine, where the objective political world and the introspective subjective space intersect and cross over. What sorts of encounter and exchange do they make possible?
Very good parking opportunities for car owners, parking spaces in the courtyard can be rented for a small fee. The major changes involved in the renovation satisfy the requirements of the French environmental standard RT Protecting the schoolyard from cold wind, avoiding over-insulation, eliminating thermal bridges by installing light facades on the school itself, the dormitory, the sports hall and residences, and draining the rainwater across a roof covered with foliage.
The thesaurus ecclesiae The bull itself did not trigger the campaign immediately since the subsequent negotiations took time. In Albrecht of Mainz was legally guaranteed half of the profits, but the operations in his territories could not start until By then, the sale organized by Arcimboldi was up and running, and it is likely that Luther had already come across preachers from this leg of the campaign in Apart from personal interactions, printing played an important role in publicizing the particular terms of the indulgence, as recent discoveries have shown.
Summaries of the papal bull appeared in broadsides, fragments of which have been identified in both Latin and German. The complete text of the German summary can be reconstructed from a quarto edition that had been considered missing since , On the print cf. To our knowledge, this summary of the bull represents the most popular printed text containing information on the terms and conditions of the offering. The German version entirely matches the Latin fragments; it can be concluded that one text was distributed in two languages and printed in at least two different formats.
The title page does not survive, For a suggestion on this see Bubenheimer, Petersablass, Summa , A2r. See the first note to thesis 4 in the 95 Theses , p. The bull and its publicity material might appear imprecise, but they do in fact use an established term for plenary indulgences. Summa , Avr, , A4v. It is not just the sermons of indulgence preachers, but also this very document which spread the word about the indulgence campaign among large numbers of people.
As a preacher, Luther began to deal with the topic of indulgences and recent developments related to them either in late or in early For a summary of earlier suggestions cf. WA 1, 94, note 1. The first relevant text survives within a sequence of sermons delivered from to and is recorded in Latin.
WA 1, 20—, here: 94—99; for another version see WA 4, — The language has been interpreted as indicating that the sermon was intended for publication; Karl Knaake in WA 1, In any case, the sermon proposes that man is saved by divine grace alone and it firmly opposes indulgence teaching that undermines this fundamental understanding. WA 1, 98— See also the note to thesis 12 of the 95 Theses , p.
Even in this early sermon, Luther emphasised that all of these aspects are vital, but must be understood and applied internally, spiritually. In short, this sermon already provides the backbone of the 95 Theses and the Sermon on Indulgences and Grace. Both texts start off with the established theological understanding of penance. Book 4: On the Doctrine of Signs. For the tripartite structure referred to by Luther see Lombard, Sentences, The Sermon names the three related components in its first point, while readers of the disputation have to combine theses 2 and 12 or later 30, 35, 39—40, and 87 in order to identify and connect the relevant terms on the basis of their previous knowledge.
Both texts proceed to deal with further scholastic statements on theoretical or practical aspects. More or less implicitly, Luther relates these to their appropriate authorities: the bible, early church teachings, canon law and scholastic school traditions, reason, and every so often concludes that they derive from mere imagination. It is clear that Luther advocates a revision of later developments relating to indulgences on the basis of biblical authority. The 95 Theses start off with a biblical understanding of penance, while the Sermon on Indulgences and Grace , as a popular piece of writing, opens with a definition of terms.
One of the great advantages of the Sermon over the 95 Theses is its clear structure. Its title presents two terms, which correspond to two sections into which the twenty points are organized see the black border in the table below. The combination of terms provides a striking response to the vernacular summary of the papal bull.
See note At the same time, the formal structure of the Sermon corresponds to the Latin and German Summa in its length and division into around twenty points. Ulrich Bubenheimer, Reliquienfest und Ablass in Halle. A summary of its contents below illustrates its structure and highlights how Luther introduces particular elements of scholastic teaching traditions, questions their authority, and compares them with what he understands the corresponding biblical foundation to be.
When we compare the 95 Theses with the Sermon von Ablass und Gnade , WA 1, — For the English translation see below, pp. The Sermon was conceived above all as a popular piece of writing.
The initial editions were produced by Johann Rhau-Grunenberg in Wittenberg, who came out with at least four of them in See also the print history of the Taylorian copies in this edition, pp. In the same year, printing houses in Leipzig, Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Basel followed suit.
Within less than one year, at least 14 editions had appeared. Public demand continued in and with at least another nine editions from Wittenberg, Leipzig, Augsburg, Basel, and Breslau. A version in Low German was published in Braunschweig in Otto Clemen concluded that the public success of the Sermon killed off the 95 Theses. Otto Clemen ed. Unter Mitwirkung von Albert Lietzmann, 1, Bonn , More recently, it has been argued that the Sermon actually brought the theses to life. Schilling, Sermon, Indeed, some of the contents of the theses were moved into the more popular format of the Sermon.
His Resolutiones were an academic step in this direction, the Sermon a popular one. This reference is important in determining the terminus post quem for our Sermon. Older scholarship dated the compilation of the Sermon to the previous year and saw in the remark to Scheurl another publication project that remained unrealized.
However, two other letters clearly refer to the Sermon. The document is undated and has been placed partially by conjecture, Following this Clemen, Werke, The second relevant letter marks the terminus ante quem for the Sermon. The timeframe from the first week of March to the first week of May is narrowed down even further when we look at the Sermon itself.
Several points relate to a publication For Nikolaus Paulus references to this cf. Clemen, Werke, Point 9 of the Sermon rejects a terminological distinction that had been discussed in a series of disputation theses at Frankfurt an der Oder. The context is explained by Martin Ohst, Pflichtbeichte. After prints had become locally available, students burned them. Luther publicly opposed this action in his sermon on the 19 March , WA 1, the sermon from the 17 March , WA 1, —73, bears no reference. Br 1, , and to Trutfetter WA. To summarize the relationship between the Sermon and the 95 Theses , one might describe them as contrasting and complementary.
They differ in their mix of scholarly and popular elements, but each offers a combination of both. While the Sermon introduces academic distinctions only to refute them, the 95 Theses present popular criticism of indulgence theory and practice to learned and ecclesiastically aware readers. The 95 Theses finish off with a sequence of popular concerns and complaints theses 81—89, along with the concluding thesis Another clearly defined sequence theses 42—51 deals with what should be taught to Christians including the laity.
The Sermon has a corresponding section points 15—17 which includes specific pieces of advice. Another text that Luther sent to Albrecht of Mainz along with his letter and the 95 Theses should be mentioned in this context. This is a Tractatus de Indulgentiis, Br 12, 5—10 with useful introductory remarks WA. Br 12, 2—5.
This is where indulgence, and indulgences, come in. Welche sind das? For some, such as saints, John 5: 24—29 might apply and offer direct passage to eternal life. Pilgrimages provided another pathway to indulgence, if they involved visiting places with valued relics on special dates for particular benefits. This gilded bronze statue was found in beneath the courtyard of the Palazzo Pio Righetti, near Campo de ' Fiori, and in the area of Pompey s Theatre. Read times Last modified on Tuesday, September 15,
The text is interesting, since it contains a statement by Luther of at least one of the arguments attributed to the laity in the 95 Theses. The 95 Theses and the accompanying letter to Albrecht of Mainz go beyond the main public protagonists and engage at a senior level with the organisation of the current indulgence campaign by referring directly to instructions in the contents of an official document provided for personnel involved in the campaign.
For translated parts see Hillerbrand, Reformation, 14— This Instructio summaria ad Subcommissarios, Penetentiarios et Confessores , used by Albrecht of Mainz, is a follow-up to related documents of earlier campaigns and was printed by Melchior Lotter in Leipzig. For the latest corrections to the earlier Instructiones confessorum , which were used in both Mainz and Magdeburg, see Bubenheimer, Petersablass, — Br 1, ; for a partial translation see Hillerbrand, Reformation, 26— One might wonder whether this expectation was realistic or proportionate.
Bearing in mind the territorial opposition to the campaigns and increasing popular criticism of indulgences of which church representatives were aware , one might have expected a variety of reactions in the episcopacy at the time. Kaufmann, Thesen, with note As for the wider historical repercussions of the events set out above, the 95 Theses reached Rome via at least three channels: Albrecht of Mainz together with his advisors, the Dominican Order around Tetzel, For a summary cf.
The 95 Theses and, more precisely, the way in which they were publicized, urged clarification on fundamental and topical questions. Within the course of one year they succeeded: on 9 November a papal bull summarized and reinforced a number of the teachings Luther had questioned. By this time, of course, the debate had moved on. The Sermon on Indulgences and Grace was a major popular factor in this. Today it allows readers to gain a sense of the very text from which numerous contemporary readers formed their first impressions of Luther.
By progressing from the Sermon to the 95 Theses we gain an awareness of some of the implications which developed from it, including on papal power, biblical authority, and the participation of the laity. Printers in Leipzig, Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Basel followed, in quick succession, the lead publication in Wittenberg.
Most of the Tr. All Reformation pamphlets in Oxford are included in Michael A. The Sermon copies are listed on p. Looking through the hastily printed, well-thumbed, often annotated, and widely travelled pamphlets, the excitement of this explosive time in print production comes to life. The following chapter tells the story of the materiality of the Sermon from production to acquisition through a study of the two Taylorian copies. On the topicality of the debate about materiality cf.
The two Taylorian copies, one produced by Pamphilus Gengenbach in Basel and one by Valentin Schumann in Leipzig, reflect the momentum of Reformation printing in different ways. The Sermon was an ideal test case for the new format: it required only six pages of text, which meant that it could be fitted onto one quire in quarto format with space for a title page and a colophon.
Both printers decided to concentrate on the text and to give neither the place of publication nor their own name, but the typeface and the woodcut decoration make it possible to attribute both editions with reasonable certainty.
The two printers developed this basic format in different ways. Types: A 2, T 2 D. Cross, Taylor Institution Library, Arch. Basel was home to Humanist printing at the highest level and established itself as one of the foremost centres of Reformation printing: Erasmus had worked with the printer Froben on his New Testament which was published in Basel in , and it was one of the places where the 95 Theses were printed in But the Sermon , the first German Lutheran print to be published there, The printer was Pamphilus Gengenbach, a proponent of the Reformation from the very beginning, and an established printer-author, writing Shrovetide plays and poems, and publishing popular literature as well as topical Latin texts.
Gengenbach had already exploited the indulgence debate for popular, indeed humorous, effect. Around , he wrote a satirical poem about durre ritter poor knights who supplement their income by robbery which he published himself as a broadside single-leaf print masquerading as a letter of indulgence. Prietzel, Gengenbach, no. On the biography of Gengenbach, cf.
Christoph Reske, Die Buchdrucker des Jahrhunderts im deutschen Sprachgebiet. Auf der Grundlage des gleichnamigen Werkes von Josef Benzing. By contrast, he keeps the Sermon unsigned, preferring to highlight on the title-page, in large blackletter font, the celebrity author, the wirdige doctor Martinus Luther Augustiner , and the place where the Sermon was originally composed and preached: zu wittenbergk gemacht vnd geprediget ill.
Other publications from the same year are surrounded by four woodcut borders which neatly frame the title; for example, for the Apologetica responsio ill. They look very similar to the decorative borders used around the same time by Gengenbach for his print of a verse legend; these were obviously leftovers from a page-sized woodcut framed by floral borders and Swiss coats of arms ill. For the Sermon they might have been further cut down to avoid the local element of the coat of arms and preserve the anonymity of the print.
This is complemented on the reverse by a large woodcut of the deposition from the cross A4v, cf. It concentrates on the grief of Mary who is the middle of the composition flanked by John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene and surrounded by further elements of the passion such as the crown of thorns in the bottom right-hand corner, dramatically highlighted by being in white cut out of the black background. This is a popular late medieval devotional image par excellence , inviting devout readers to encounter the passion personally through the compassion of Mary.
Even though no direct model has been identified nor any other print where it is used , it must have been a recycled piece used previously for other devotional purposes. The combination of the man with the rosary heading for church on the title and the composition which focuses on the passion of Christ and the suffering of Mary, show how Pamphilus Gengenbach read the Sermon — or at least how he thought he could market it best: not as a piece of polemical writing, still less as part of an academic debate, but as a devotional text that encouraged readers to start their quest for the remission of sins by looking at their own piety rather than by acquiring it through money.
In a way, the broadside becomes an alternative to buying indulgences: a self-help pamphlet rather than a time-off voucher for purgatory. As an established printer with experience in the market for vernacular texts, Pamphilus Gengenbach could respond quickly to changing trends. The reverse of the broadsheet A1v—A2r and A3v— VD16 L lists six copies; the corrections in vol. She thinks that the batch including the Taylorian copy was the first batch to be printed, while the WA 1 lists it as the second batch.
The additional quire signature Aij in the VD16 L edition seems to support this sequence of printing. The Taylorian copy features different line breaks on A2v and A3r and one hyphen fewer in the title than the copies from the other batch. In addition, on the otherwise identical reverse, the quire signature Aij shows up. The whole print run must have been issued before 4 September , since Capito mentions the Basel print as known in a letter to Luther. Br 1, no. In October , a Latin translation based on one of the Gengenbach editions was included in the first Complete Works of Luther, published by Froben together with the Latin Sermo de poenitentia which Gengenbach had published more or less simultaneously with the Sermon in There is a copy in Oxford in the Bodleian Library, Tr.
Quire signatures Aij, Aiij. Taylor Institution Library, Arch.
WA 1, , no. Leipzig had several printers sharing fonts and taking up the same texts in quick succession. By then it had already become a piece of history — this can be seen on the title page of the Bodleian copy Tr. VD16 L This in turn points to Schumann as publisher of the edition VD16 L in the Leipzig signature type, a copy of which is in the Taylorian, Arch.
But what makes the Taylorian copy special is not so much that it has the decorative border which Valentin Schumann provided and which — other than in the Basel edition discussed previously — fits like a glove around the well spaced and elegantly laid out title page. Rather it is the evidence of a close engagement with the text by more than one reader from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
There are annotations in at least three different hands, marking up the text and providing copious marginalia on the title page and the empty end-paper. As is often the case, once a first reader had started making comments, others followed suit. The first layer of comments seems intended to highlight portions of text by underlining and marking them up in the margins.